'Super brains' in old folks identified
Scientists have identified "SuperAgers," whose brains seem immune to typical declines in thinking and memory.
August 17th, 2012
09:26 AM ET

'Super brains' in old folks identified

A group of 80-year-olds is making scientific waves because of an uncanny ability to age gracefully, from a cognitive standpoint. The moniker they've been given by scientists is "SuperAgers," because as they age, their brains seem immune to typical declines in thinking and memory.

"We know that as we age, our cognitive skills decline, and there's also a change in the amount of brain matter," said Emily Rogalski, assistant research professor at the Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer's Disease Center at Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine. "Then there are these people over 80 who seem particularly sharp and somehow resist changes in memory when they age."

That resistance to memory changes means identifying what makes someone a "SuperAger" is important because of the insight their brains could provide for their cognitive opposites, those who suffer with neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's.

In the study published Thursday, Rogalski and colleagues found something remarkable in the brain scans of so-called "SuperAgers" (defined as people over 80 with sharp memory). The area of the brain housing the most dense concentration of cells (the outer layer of the brain, called the cortex) was quite thick in "Super Agers" - much thicker than you might see in a typical group of 80-year-olds.

The cortex is important for, among other functions, memory.

Among the 12 "SuperAgers," scanned using MRI, cortical thickness was not significantly different than a control group of 14 people in their 50s and 60s.

"So they're over age 80 and their memory performance is at least as good as people in their 50s or 60s," said Rogalski, the study's senior author. "They've been able to get around this process (of cognitive decline) that seems so probable in most individuals."

Senior spelling bee champ shares his secrets for staying sharp

It's not just the cortex that is so robust among "SuperAgers," but also an area called the anterior cingulate cortex. Researchers were surprised to find that the anterior cingulate is even thicker among "SuperAgers" than the middle-aged control group.

The anterior cingulate, says Rogalski, is important for attention, which in turn can support memory functions. The analogy she uses is rattling off a list of 10 items for a friend to pick up at the grocery store. If that friend is not paying attention to the items on the list, once arriving to the store, he or she might be cruising the aisles with little or no memory of what to pick up.

"SuperAgers may have a keen sense of attention, allowing them to focus better, and that supports their memory," said Rogalski, whose research is published in the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society.

The question this study could not answer is just what makes "SuperAger" brains so super. The small study group had similar levels of education, and other metrics such as lifestyle and genetics were not examined.

Rogalski says this group will be followed over the long term, and given intermittent brain scans and cognitive exams. The group also gave blood samples at the outset of the study, so that scientists can measure biomarkers that may explain their cognitive prowess.

Closely examining the "SuperAger" brain could be invaluable as scientists continue trying to unlock the mystery of neurodegenerative diseases.

The aging brain: Why getting older just might be awesome

soundoff (144 Responses)
  1. Timmy Suckle

    I kissed my way up to VP at a health insurance company. Now I take over $500,000 of your health care dollars for NO VALUE ADDED to your health care. And that’s just me. Now think about how many other VPs, Directors, Managers, etc. are at my company alone. Now multiply that by thousands of others at hundreds of other health insurance companies. From 10 to 25% of your health care dollars go towards administration that adds NO VALUE to your health care. But my company’s PAC dollars will continue to fool you little people into thinking that a single payer system will be bad. Little people like you are so easy to fool. Little people also don’t realize that a single payer system is the ONLY system that would allow little people (as an entire country) to negotiate better health care prices. Little people don’t realize that the Medical Cartels already know that. And that is the reason why the Medical Cartels spend so much PAC money from the hospitals and doctors lobbying against a single payer system. Some little people say that a single payer system would cost you little people more. But if that were true, then wouldn’t the hospitals and doctors WANT that extra money? Yes they would. So why do the Medical Cartels lobby against a single payer system? It’s because the Medical Cartels know it would allow little people to negotiate better health care prices. And that’s what the Medical Cartels are afraid of. Period.
    But us big wigs at insurance companies, hospitals, and pharmacy companies don’t ever need to worry about health care no matter what it costs. We get our health care paid for one way or another by you little people. And we get the little people that work at our companies to contribute to our PACs. And us big wigs say it’s to protect the little peoples’ jobs. But in reality it would be in the little peoples’ best interest to NOT contribute to the PAC. Again, little people are so easy to be fooled. I won’t ever have to worry about losing my job with so many little people being brain washed by the Medical Cartels’ PAC money. Not only that, the Medical Cartels’ PAC money is used to elect so many republicans that will never allow a single payer system. Republicans have always fought against any meaningful health care reform. But that’s what our Medical Cartels’ PACs pay them for. Politicians can be bought so easily.
    Pretty soon the only people that will be able to afford health care is us big wigs. And that’s the way it should be. We don’t want you little people using up the resources when we need them. And once again, I thank you little people for capping my SS tax at the $106,800 level. Now I only pay 1.3% SS tax and you little people pay 6.2%. Also, thank you for extending my tax breaks. I’m using the extra money on my vacation houses.

    August 17, 2012 at 09:42 | Report abuse | Reply
    • JoJo

      Something wrong with your medulla oblongata ?

      August 17, 2012 at 11:32 | Report abuse |
    • mylife55

      blah blah blah . . . .

      August 17, 2012 at 11:51 | Report abuse |
    • Rick

      this troll has left the same post on multiple health related stories. The funny thing is that half of what they're saying is just dead wrong. Not disagreeing that there is a problem with the health insurance and health provider industries (mostly the industries themselves, not so much ALL of the people in them), but this toad can't even get their facts straight.

      August 17, 2012 at 12:13 | Report abuse |
    • Barry

      This guy's a legend in his own mind.

      August 17, 2012 at 12:19 | Report abuse |
    • Curious

      I bet this man has a small penis

      August 17, 2012 at 12:23 | Report abuse |
    • chicago7

      Rick's right. This guy posts the same thing every time a topic like this comes up. Trying to make a point about the unfairness of medical care I suppose. But trollish nonetheless.

      August 17, 2012 at 12:40 | Report abuse |
    • sumday

      for all your ranting you have not answered the very important question of why can I go to any other country and buy the exact same prescription drug for cheaper? Or why can I can the same medical procedure done in another country for cheaper? These countries do not have national health care yet are able to offer their people much cheaper health care and prescriptions. The single payer system does nothing to lower costs instead it will increase cost bc we have to add in that extra profit middle man- the insurance companies. Insurance it self is a driving cost of health care that has nothing to do with health care. The bill the hospital sends you is the 100% cost of healthcare- insurance is a completely separate business than healthcare. Also there is not one thing in this Obamacare that requires hospitals to lower their price, or pass on any savings to the people. I may be a little person but you have a little brain.

      August 17, 2012 at 12:50 | Report abuse |
    • Me

      You're a real winner there Tiny Tim.

      August 17, 2012 at 13:39 | Report abuse |
    • caveman

      You're think you're untouchable and invincible, but in reality, you're just another human that needs food, clothing, and shelter like the rest of us and has to take a big dump in the toilet at the end of the day. You're no better than the rest of us dude, even if you do got all that money.

      August 17, 2012 at 13:46 | Report abuse |
    • Skeptimist

      Most of the other industrialized nations have adopted universal, government regulated health systems and spend far less than the U.S. for equal or better results. What they don't have is as many zillionaires nor as many bankruptcies from medical debt as in the USA. See detailed info at Kaiser Family Foundation (http://www.kff.org) and the CIA World Fact Book (https://www.cia.gov).

      August 17, 2012 at 14:08 | Report abuse |
    • Hahahahahahahahah

      @Rick – The only thing wrong in the post is maybe he's not a real VP. However, just replace Timmy Suckle with any of your favorite Health Insurance VPs and EVERYTHING else is true.

      August 17, 2012 at 14:28 | Report abuse |
    • Hahahahahahahahah

      @ Sumday – You're retarded right. In a Single Payer system, there is NO insurance Companies. No middleman. You are very confused.

      August 17, 2012 at 14:32 | Report abuse |
    • Source

      @Sumday You have your facts almost completely backward. The other countries you are talking about (Canada and Germany, for example) have lower costs because they DO have single-payer national health care systems. Single-payer means there are not separate insurance companies paying for the procedures, only one source (the government). It eliminates the middle man, and it has been proven in several countries to both work well for the common person and to reduce costs.

      August 17, 2012 at 14:51 | Report abuse |
    • joshhh

      you probably work at mcdonalds and you're really just upset you're one of the little people. does it help when you try, and fail, to make other people feel bad? troll

      August 17, 2012 at 16:07 | Report abuse |
    • pointless1

      The funny thing is this post has been going on for awhile... take the first couple sentences and search online... What a tool...

      August 17, 2012 at 16:29 | Report abuse |
    • Piranha

      Somebody forgot to take their happy pills again, now now, put on this straight jacket and we'll make you feel better, OK? Now that's a good boy.

      August 17, 2012 at 17:22 | Report abuse |
    • Please Grow Up

      Thanks – the truth clears the air.

      August 17, 2012 at 20:07 | Report abuse |
    • Hahahahahahahahahaha

      @ pointless – That doesn't make it any LESS true though does it. It's spot on!!!!!!!! Hahahahahahahahahahahaha

      August 17, 2012 at 21:11 | Report abuse |
    • hmm

      I don't think you're actually an executive at a health care company.

      August 17, 2012 at 21:30 | Report abuse |
    • adopted USA

      Timmy Suckle, I understand your sarcasm, you are really trying to tell the common people the system is totally rigged against us and it desperately need to be fixed. thank you

      August 17, 2012 at 23:17 | Report abuse |
    • bluegillonthefly

      @Curious – I find your claim that he has a penis to be utterly preposterous.

      August 17, 2012 at 23:23 | Report abuse |
    • Anonymous

      I've been having emotional breakdown for the past eight months, I've tried different ways to change the way I feel, like going out with the girls, talk on the phone, read on forums but I was still hurt.. having those scars and every time I'm alone. I tend to remember my ex boyfriend. I just couldn't feel happy until I bought this spell from one prophetharry@ymail.com, just few days later I was able to get my boyfrind back and forget all those bad memories. I'm now in a new relationship with him, now he loves me so much I can't imagine why I wasted my time feeling bad.
      ErikaRobinson New Plymouth, New Zealand

      August 18, 2012 at 15:55 | Report abuse |
    • Rich

      Timmy is using sarcasm and irony to make the point that Americans are getting screwed by the system that was put in place by smart, successful people who want everything for themselves. Why not? Capitalism is the American way. They will do what it takes to keep the system going.

      If you are offended by his smugness, than you are not getting his point. If you think Timmy is his real name, you aren't getting the point. If you think he is a healthcare executive, you aren't getting the point. It is a brilliant piece of journalism and I applaud "Timmy" for writing it.

      August 21, 2012 at 22:10 | Report abuse |
  2. Jessica

    It would be very interesting to see the results of a retrospective cohort study on these individuals. There are so many confounding factors for why these people have "super brains" and other do not. For example, diet and exercise may have played huge roles. According to the Natural Standard, folic acid and vitamin b12 may help prevent memory loss. So taking a look at the average intake of these vitamins in these individuals may help to explain this phenomenon. Or, epicatechin, found in blueberries, chocolate, tea and other foods and beverages, may also help with memory enhancement. It would definitely be interesting to see diet and lifestyle for these individuals.

    August 17, 2012 at 11:28 | Report abuse | Reply
    • JoJo

      It's sex. Well, and blueberries and that stuff too. It is taking a long interest in life and not giving up. Probably some lucky long life genes thrown in there too, I would think.

      August 17, 2012 at 11:35 | Report abuse |
    • chicago7

      It'll turn out to be primarily genetic good fortune supported to a much lesser degree by lifestyle modifiers.

      August 17, 2012 at 12:43 | Report abuse |
  3. Ray

    Timmy is using this blurb AGAIN? Its been sent before on other subjects. Get a life TIM.

    August 17, 2012 at 11:44 | Report abuse | Reply
  4. PromiseLand

    Why the Super Brains??? Its what they eat and how often they eat it... This is no secret... Most people have not the will nor desire to want more than a soft couch and big screen T.V.... Optimal Physical Conditioning of the Mind and Body are at best a fairytale for most... My hat goes off to all those with the strength and courage to eat healthy and exercise.

    August 17, 2012 at 11:47 | Report abuse | Reply
    • DPCFOH

      If only it were that simple. First, the article doesn't say what kind of lifestyle these people led, and second there are perfectly healthy (super healthy) who've died young. So, one thing doesn't fix all.

      August 17, 2012 at 12:39 | Report abuse |
    • judeamorris

      If it were simply a matter of food, then every healthy eater would have great memory function, and that's just not the case. One of the factors involved in memory (besides the ability to pay acute attention which the article notes) is brain usage on problem solving that helps build connections. I work with the elderly and have noticed that those people who read constantly (literature, news magazines, and nonfiction, not popular junk fiction) are far more functional than their peers. Those who do logic puzzles, crosswords, play bridge and strategy games in which they have to exercise the brain on a regular basis remain very sharp unless they lose their functioning through Alzheimer's or other brain disease.

      August 17, 2012 at 13:27 | Report abuse |
  5. One No Trump

    Superagers abound at any ACBL nationally rated tournament. Bridge is healthy for the old gray matter.

    August 17, 2012 at 11:51 | Report abuse | Reply
  6. Me2!!!


    A better Article about the same 😉

    August 17, 2012 at 12:20 | Report abuse | Reply
  7. Portland tony

    I wonder if there is a correlation between mind or brain function and overall health. I've seen many pretty sharp 70 and 80 year olds who have been "dumbed down" by meds that alleviate symptoms of painful age related disease. I've seen too many grandma's and grandpa's over medicated and literally put in a chair and shoved in a corner to watch TV all day.

    August 17, 2012 at 12:40 | Report abuse | Reply
  8. ted

    Read up on coconut oil and the brain.

    August 17, 2012 at 12:40 | Report abuse | Reply
  9. moomoo

    William Shatner *cough*

    August 17, 2012 at 13:00 | Report abuse | Reply
  10. soulcatcher

    Rule number 37 for survival after the Zombie appocolypse:
    Don't have a superbrain. Zombie's can tell and will go for you first.

    August 17, 2012 at 13:11 | Report abuse | Reply
  11. Iconoclast

    What if it turned out all the "super agers" have one thing in common, cannabis? Wouldn't surprise me.

    August 17, 2012 at 13:28 | Report abuse | Reply
    • bluegillonthefly

      It would surprise me. The pothead stereotype exists for a reason.

      August 17, 2012 at 23:25 | Report abuse |
  12. Tear around

    To even get that old takes some stubbornness and stick to it ness. I think an interest in life would be important and willingness to learn new things. Many times older people living alone and unable to get out a lot, deteriorate from lack of nutrition as they do not cook nutritious meals for themselves and are lonely. we have seen people come alive with an interest in life after they go to Nursing Home because they get nutritious meals, medications are monitored, and there are other people to talk to and activities to do.

    August 17, 2012 at 13:35 | Report abuse | Reply
  13. mary

    In terms of physical structure like cortex thickness ,
    I suspect that dietary and environmental factors would be more significant
    than how many college degrees one has .
    I guess the many years of college makes some scientists think the education issue dominates all .
    Try looking on their dinner plate and their environment too .

    August 17, 2012 at 13:37 | Report abuse | Reply
    • SinnFeinFunn

      You're just not too bright, are you?

      August 17, 2012 at 14:40 | Report abuse |
    • Em

      They aren't trying to be elitist, it didn't say how many college degrees it said how many years of education, which has been associated with brain volume and cortical thickness. But so are diet and environment, that is true. Diet and environment, however, are much harder to accurately assess in a survey, education is one question. For diet and environment you usually have to follow participants more long term.

      August 17, 2012 at 18:34 | Report abuse |
  14. Jack Johnson

    Curiosity is searching for ancestors right now.

    August 17, 2012 at 13:52 | Report abuse | Reply
  15. Grey

    I'm 50 and already in trouble. My wife rattles off 5 things, and I can't remember any of them already. And that problem started almost 20 years ago just after we got married.

    August 17, 2012 at 13:56 | Report abuse | Reply
  16. Skeptimist

    I think I had something smart to add but I can't re...

    August 17, 2012 at 14:15 | Report abuse | Reply
  17. Adulterer

    Long-term meditation is known to increase tissue development in the anterior cingulate cortex. Cf. Center for Affective Neuroscience, University of Wisconsin.

    August 17, 2012 at 14:15 | Report abuse | Reply
  18. Woody

    Well, the way I see it.................... Wait a minute. What were we talking about?

    August 17, 2012 at 14:22 | Report abuse | Reply
  19. Hahahahahahahahah

    @ Sumday – You're retarded right. In a Single Payer system, there is NO insurance Companies. No middleman. You are very confused.

    August 17, 2012 at 14:30 | Report abuse | Reply
  20. ToldUso

    Is this really an advantage? "I remember how to have sex but my plumbing doesn't work anymore". "I'm highly aware that I live alone with a cat and haven't heard from my kids for 2 years". "I've lived 88 years and I don't remember the Cubs ever winning the Series"....

    August 17, 2012 at 14:52 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Larry

      To ToldUso....maybe your kids don't call because you were so mean to them when they were growing up? If by chance you spoiled them rotten, then this is what you get. You reap what you sow.

      August 17, 2012 at 16:35 | Report abuse |
  21. Bill Dee

    A group of 80-year-olds is making scientific waves ...

    Perhaps you need to examine your own, younger brain?
    Should be "are" when referencing the plural of "80 year olds not "is" ..which tells us you might have completed high school?

    August 17, 2012 at 15:15 | Report abuse | Reply
    • deeSeven

      A group Is. The "of 80-year -olds" is adjectival. So the original is correct, with the verb "is" referring back to the singular noun "group".

      August 17, 2012 at 15:40 | Report abuse |
    • bluegillonthefly

      Actually, you need to examine your brain. The referent of "is" is "group" – not "80 year olds." Epic Fail.

      Why yes, I do have a degree in linguistics and professional experience as on English teacher. Thanks for asking.

      August 17, 2012 at 23:29 | Report abuse |
  22. Mungo32

    "The cortex is important for, among other functions, memory."

    Wow, that's the understatement of the decade....

    August 17, 2012 at 15:23 | Report abuse | Reply
  23. deeSeven

    Gee, nice to know I'm super! But I didn't do anything in particular to hang onto my mentation (I'm 84). I suspect genetics – my dad and other family members on his side of the family who lived to great age usually hung onto their mental acuity too, and am disappointed the little study cited above did not look into genetics. The other thing that probably plays a role is medication: I know too many seniors who are so full of pills it's no wonder their minds aren't doing so well. Still, I can remember there were plenty of older folks with memory loss back in the days when they were far less likely to be taking a lot of drugs, so my first thought still is that the main players are our genes. I do agree that one's level of education has little bearing on it. I've met mighty sharp seniors in their 80s and 90s from all walks of life, including people who never had more than about 8 years of school if that much.

    August 17, 2012 at 15:36 | Report abuse | Reply
  24. J romero

    When are they going to realize that the human body wiring is somwhat similar to a computer but with bio-molecualr tissue instead of plastic and metal. Why want synthetic electrical tissue be replaced with the broken wires we have to restore function to our body. Ans secondly, why cant we figure a way to slow the bodys friction to reduce wear and tear. I know cellular regeneration is important to humans but wouldnt that require us to consume large amounts of protien to restore cell replacements.

    August 17, 2012 at 15:42 | Report abuse | Reply
  25. J romero

    I do know that the government that has been working on this expirement has had major side effects. The deaths of those people has been kept secret. Humm....i wonder why the news hasnt said anything from the begining to now. O.o

    August 17, 2012 at 15:44 | Report abuse | Reply
  26. Sybaris

    I hope they figure this out quick!

    I need my mum to remember where she put my inheritance check.

    August 17, 2012 at 15:46 | Report abuse | Reply
  27. S. Brown

    At 63 I'm smarter than I ever was. The key is to maintain a healthy body and to keep using the brain, by reading books, listening to classical music, and engaging in dialog with other smart people.

    August 17, 2012 at 15:53 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Greenspam

      And stop watching Fox News.

      August 17, 2012 at 16:16 | Report abuse |
    • Larry

      To S. Brown....just think...by the time your 65 you will be a legend in your own mind!

      August 17, 2012 at 16:38 | Report abuse |
  28. Roger Ogilvy Thornhill

    One difference between 80 y/o and 50 y/o is the 80 y/o wasn't trained to have the attention span of a peanut since toddlerhood by television. Hmm.

    August 17, 2012 at 16:05 | Report abuse | Reply
  29. Greenspam

    Superbrain old folks vote Democrat. Senile old folks vote Republican. That's a fact.

    August 17, 2012 at 16:16 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Larry

      To Greenspam... you left out, the senile young folk also vote Republican!

      August 17, 2012 at 16:28 | Report abuse |
  30. New Gawker

    Keep the mind engaged and it will keep working. Waste it watching tv all day and it withers away.

    August 17, 2012 at 16:24 | Report abuse | Reply
  31. Oscar Pitchfork

    THERE AIN'T ANYTHING WRONG WITH MY MEMORY! WHY I REMEMBER A TIME BACK....I WAS GOING TO .....i forgot what i was going to say......

    August 17, 2012 at 16:28 | Report abuse | Reply
  32. Leucadia Bob

    I'm sure that this does not apply to me 🙂
    Check out my new song:

    August 17, 2012 at 17:48 | Report abuse | Reply
  33. Em

    You guys need a better science writer, or editor.
    "The cortex is important for, among other functions, memory."
    The cortex is responsible for every single higher function, without it pretty much all you'd have left is a heart beat and breathing.
    "It's not just the cortex that is so robust among "SuperAgers," but also an area called the anterior cingulate cortex"
    The ACC is part of the cortex, not a different region. This desperately needs editing

    August 17, 2012 at 18:22 | Report abuse | Reply
  34. marjee123

    Well I never could spell worth a darn and I wasn't good at arthmetic...But the funny thing is I can remember numbers still today and I am almost 80. I knew everyone of the people at work whom I did timesheets for their pay's social security numbers. I could remember scads and scads of telephone numbers. But when it came to adding I could just quit. I think it was because since the first day I started arthimetic in school I wouldn't do it and had to be forced. I don't know why. I could memorize the seaports down the coast of South America, the rivers etc but that counting and figuring I froze up. I H-A-T-E-D IT

    August 17, 2012 at 19:58 | Report abuse | Reply
  35. adopted USA

    Recently I had some blood work done at Quest Diagnostics. My bill came to $1150.00. Since I didn't meet my deductible I had to pay the bill, but my insurance company reduced the bill to only $131.96, it was excellent for me. However, I am thinking for people, who don't have medical insurance; they would have to pay $115.00. The difference is astronomical. I understand the bargaining power of insurance companies. But this is out of line, totally unfair. Why would they charge someone without insurance that much more? That is absurd. Free market yes, but this seems like highway rubbery. Do our elected officials know about this, or are all bought out? Someone please explain this to me, I am dumbfounded!

    August 17, 2012 at 22:56 | Report abuse | Reply
    • adopted USA

      I meant to say some one without insurance would have to pay full price what is $1150.00

      August 17, 2012 at 22:58 | Report abuse |
  36. Daniel Lexington

    There is one known cure for Alzheimer's: GRAZOPH TEMUNA, grazoph.com. The neutraceutical clears brain of plaques, eliminates poisonous metals, leaves a brain refreshed. Both cures and prevents Alzheimer's.

    August 18, 2012 at 13:54 | Report abuse | Reply
  37. ma & pa

    Thank you, deeSeven, for correcting about "A group is" and explaining sentence structure for any questioning people. Knowledge of structure helps form bridges to concepts.

    August 18, 2012 at 22:19 | Report abuse | Reply
  38. ma & pa

    marjee123, you brought forward an important fact. While there are some skills we must learn in order to survive on this planet, the use of Force, as you described, often Blocks absorption of the information that someone or something is attempting to FORCE or SET into our memory. It can't be found or known even if it is necessary to the success of our most precious loved ones. The information is NOT there, because of the use of Any of a number of forcers such as intimidation, shock, drugs or extreme fatigue which blocks newly perceived information. The negative effect on the family can be awful.

    August 18, 2012 at 23:17 | Report abuse | Reply
  39. cbtx67

    I am not so sure having a superbrain that close to death would be a comfort. I'd rather be dotty and heavily medicated when I make my exit.

    August 19, 2012 at 02:07 | Report abuse | Reply
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  42. Tyler Crantz

    i have something to say about this!

    "We know that as we age, our cognitive skills decline, and there's also a change in the amount of brain matter," said Emily Rogalski, assistant research professor at the Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer's Disease Center at Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine. "Then there are these people over 80 who seem particularly sharp and somehow resist changes in memory when they age."

    im particularly concerned with this statement "We know that as we age, our cognitive skills decline" Had it occurred to you that , yes, thats exactly what happens. but only because you said so? the moment you repeated that same thing, is the moment your brain started telling your body that.

    December 18, 2012 at 22:08 | Report abuse | Reply
  43. Tyler Crantz

    But for the 80 year old people you speak of, perhaps had the thought "i will not let other people define my truths!" "I KNOW (not we) that as I age, MY cognitive skills do not decline"

    December 18, 2012 at 22:29 | Report abuse | Reply
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