Research questions impact of pacifiers on disrupting breast-feeding
April 30th, 2012
12:05 PM ET

Research questions impact of pacifiers on disrupting breast-feeding

Pacifiers can soothe agitated infants, but some experts - including those at the World Health Organization (WHO) - discourage pacifier use in the first six months of life because of concerns that it may interfere with breast-feeding, widely seen as the best way to feed a newborn.

New research, however, casts doubt on the notion that pacifier use disrupts breast-feeding. In an analysis of feeding patterns among 2,249 infants in a single maternity ward over a 15-month period, researchers found the proportion of infants who were exclusively breast-fed dropped from 79% to 68% after pacifier use was restricted in the ward.

Meanwhile, the proportion of infants who needed formula in addition to breast-feeding jumped from 18% to 28% after the change in policy, according to the preliminary results of the study, which were presented today at the annual meeting of the Pediatric Academic Societies, in Boston.

"We were surprised - even disappointed - to find that our exclusive breast-feeding rates went down and supplemental formula feedings went up," says Carrie Phillipi, M.D., senior author of the study and an associate professor of pediatrics at Oregon Health & Science University, in Portland.

Health.com: Painless breast-feeding, a motherhood myth

The conventional wisdom is that pacifier use creates "nipple confusion" in newborns, says Pete Richel, M.D., chief of pediatrics at Northern Westchester Hospital, in Mt. Kisco, New York, who was not involved with the study.

The theory is that infants suckle their mother's nipple differently than they do a bottle or pacifier, and may have difficulty latching on to the mother if they're given too much exposure to artificial nipples.

In addition, the body produces breast milk according to demand, so frequently giving infants a pacifier may in some cases compromise the mother's milk supply, Phillipi says.

Health.com: Women who delay returning to work breast-feed longer

Prohibiting the use of pacifiers and artificial nipples is one of the 10 steps for encouraging breast-feeding that hospitals in the United States must take to earn a "baby-friendly" designation from the WHO and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF).

As part of its efforts to qualify for this baby-friendly status, the Doernbecher Children's Hospital at OHSU curtailed the use of pacifiers in its mother-baby unit in December 2010. After that date, the hospital required nurses and doctors to sign pacifiers out and use them only for "medically appropriate reasons," such as when a baby undergoes a painful surgical procedure or is withdrawing from drugs the mother took while pregnant.

The policy change provided Phillipi and her colleagues with a handy way of assessing before-and-after changes in pacifier use and breast-feeding, but their analysis lacks the rigor of a carefully designed and controlled study.

For instance, the hospital allowed visitors to bring their own pacifiers into the mother-baby unit, which is specially designed to accommodate mothers, infants, and family members. The researchers have no way of knowing how many outside pacifiers were brought it, or how often the infants used them.

Health.com: Pregnancy advice examined

Moreover, the analysis didn't take into account the mothers' demographic profiles and the hospital's staffing levels, in particular the availability of doctors and nurses to give breast-feeding advice, Phillipi says.

Despite these weaknesses, the findings add another wrinkle to the already confusing recommendations for pacifier use in newborns. In contrast to the WHO, which discourages all pacifier use in the first six months of life, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends giving babies pacifiers as they fall asleep beginning at the one-month mark, because this practice has been linked with a lower risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

"It's very logical to think that pacifiers might interfere with breastfeeding, but there isn't really strong evidence that pacifiers are the problem, and they do turn out to be beneficial for reducing the risk of SIDS," Phillipi says. "Maybe we could approach mothers and their infants on a more individual basis… We can't make blanket recommendations about complex things."

Copyright Health Magazine 2011

soundoff (1,063 Responses)
  1. sfweekly.com

    Precisely the kind of web content that enriches the net. Thanks!


    February 7, 2021 at 18:28 | Report abuse | Reply
  2. sfexaminer.com

    Love the way you cover this topic.


    February 7, 2021 at 19:00 | Report abuse | Reply
  3. Mutual Fund

    Great – I should definitely pronounce, impressed with your web site. I had no trouble navigating through all the tabs as well as related info ended up being truly simple to do to access. I recently found what I hoped for before you know it in the least. Reasonably unusual. Is likely to appreciate it for those who add forums or something, site theme . a tones way for your client to communicate. Excellent task..

    February 8, 2021 at 00:42 | Report abuse | Reply
  4. 먹튀사이트

    Very good article. I absolutely appreciate this site. Thanks!


    February 8, 2021 at 06:46 | Report abuse | Reply
  5. 출장마사지


    February 8, 2021 at 11:53 | Report abuse | Reply
  6. เบ็ตฟิก

    บาคาร่า เกมไพ่ที่ได้รับความนิยมาอย่างช้านาน จนกว่าในขณะนี้ผู้เล่นสามารถเข้าร่วมเล่นเกมอันดังนี้ได้ไม่ว่าจะหนทางคาสิโน หรือ คาสิโนออนไลน์ ที่สะดวกสบายไม่เสียเวล่ำเวลาเดินทางไกล แถมยังได้อัตราการจ่ายที่สูงและโบนัสอีกเพียบ ให้ผลประโชน์กับผู้เล่นสูงสุด

    February 8, 2021 at 14:25 | Report abuse | Reply
  7. slotxo

    I am in fact grateful to the owner of this web site who has
    shared this wonderful article at at this place.

    February 8, 2021 at 14:36 | Report abuse | Reply
  8. 먹튀사이트


    February 8, 2021 at 14:58 | Report abuse | Reply
  9. https://europa-road.eu/hu/traktor-szallitas.php

    Good article and straight to the point. I don't know if this is truly the best place to ask but do you people have any thoughts on where to get some professional writers? Thank you 🙂


    February 9, 2021 at 04:45 | Report abuse | Reply
  10. AbdulXHostin

    Pretty great post. I simply came across your blog and wished to bring up that I've
    truly enjoyed browsing your blog posts. Regardless
    I will be subscribing on the feed and I hope you write once
    more very soon!

    My webpage ... AbdulXHostin

    February 9, 2021 at 06:52 | Report abuse | Reply
  11. Tantric Massage London

    I loved as much as you'll receive carried out right here.
    The sketch is tasteful, your authored material stylish.

    nonetheless, you command get got an nervousness over that you wish be delivering the following.
    unwell unquestionably come further formerly again since exactly the
    same nearly a lot often inside case you shield this increase.

    February 9, 2021 at 10:54 | Report abuse | Reply
  12. budgeting stickers

    Hiya! I know this is kinda off topic nevertheless I'd figured I'd ask.
    Would you be interested in exchanging links or maybe guest writing a blog article or vice-versa?
    My blog covers a lot of the same topics as yours and I feel we could greatly
    benefit from each other. If you're interested feel free to send me an email.

    I look forward to hearing from you! Awesome blog by the way!

    Look at my page – budgeting stickers

    February 10, 2021 at 01:16 | Report abuse | Reply
  13. หวย

    Good article. I am facing a few of these issues as well..

    February 10, 2021 at 02:34 | Report abuse | Reply
  14. Bariatric Plate Set

    Heya i am for the first time here. I came across this board and I find It truly useful & it helped me out a lot. I hope to give something back and aid others like you aided me.


    February 10, 2021 at 03:03 | Report abuse | Reply
  15. best cheap dumpster rental

    I’m very happy to read this. This is the kind of manual that needs to be given and not the random misinformation that is at the other blogs. Appreciate your sharing this best doc.


    February 10, 2021 at 06:27 | Report abuse | Reply
  16. Epoxy Coating

    Good day! I just wish to offer you a big thumbs up for your great information you've got right here on this post.
    I will be coming back to your web site for more soon.

    February 10, 2021 at 08:32 | Report abuse | Reply
  17. 출장

    I was pretty pleased to uncover this web site. I need to to thank you for your time due to this wonderful read!! I definitely savored every part of it and i also have you saved to fav to see new things in your website.


    February 10, 2021 at 10:02 | Report abuse | Reply
  18. nba home jerseys

    Its like you read my mind! You appear to know a lot about this,
    like you wrote the book in it or something. I think that you
    can do with a few pics to drive the message home a little bit, but other than that, this is
    magnificent blog. An excellent read. I will definitely be back.

    February 10, 2021 at 12:14 | Report abuse | Reply
  19. Bariatric Containers

    Hey! I know this is kinda off topic nevertheless I'd figured I'd ask. Would you be interested in trading links or maybe guest authoring a blog post or vice-versa? My website goes over a lot of the same topics as yours and I believe we could greatly benefit from each other. If you're interested feel free to send me an email. I look forward to hearing from you! Awesome blog by the way!


    February 10, 2021 at 15:25 | Report abuse | Reply
  20. Landon Abramowski

    What i do not realize is in fact how you're not really much more smartly-liked than you may be now. You are very intelligent. You recognize thus considerably when it comes to this topic, produced me individually imagine it from so many various angles. Its like men and women are not involved except it’s something to do with Girl gaga! Your individual stuffs nice. At all times handle it up!

    https://chart.googleapis.com/chart?chs=150×150&cht=qr&chl=http://muravlenko.yanao.ru/forum/away.php?s=https3A2F2Fyoutube.com/watch?v=UYcf-g3HZV4?huskies for sale

    February 10, 2021 at 20:44 | Report abuse | Reply
  21. TechNews

    I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I'm not sure whether this post is written by him as no one else know such detailed about my problem. You are incredible! Thanks!


    February 11, 2021 at 01:56 | Report abuse | Reply
  22. หวย

    An impressive share! I've just forwarded this onto a coworker who had been doing a little homework on this.
    And he in fact bought me dinner because I found
    it for him... lol. So allow me to reword this.... Thank YOU for the meal!!
    But yeah, thanx for spending some time to talk about this issue here on your site.

    February 11, 2021 at 08:07 | Report abuse | Reply
  23. Phoebe Sylvain

    Good day! I know this is kinda off topic however I'd figured I'd ask. Would you be interested in exchanging links or maybe guest authoring a blog article or vice-versa? My site covers a lot of the same subjects as yours and I believe we could greatly benefit from each other. If you are interested feel free to send me an email. I look forward to hearing from you! Excellent blog by the way!


    February 11, 2021 at 08:13 | Report abuse | Reply
  24. betflix

    เริ่มที่เกมส์ บาคาร่า ซึ่งเป็นเกมส์ที่แมสที่สุดในบรรดาเว็บไซต์คาสิโนทั้งโลก ซึ่งเป็นเกมส์ที่เข้าถึงง่าย แนวทางการเล่นก็มีเพียงแค่ไม่กี่อย่าง ระบบเกมส์ก็จะเหมือน ป็อกเด้งนั่นเอง ซึ่งเว็บไซต์ betflix
    มองเห็นถึงจุดนี้ว่า เมื่อมีผู้เล่นใหม่เข้ามา จะทำยังไงถึงจะสื่อหัวใจผู้เล่นใหม่ให้รู้สึกหนุกไปกับเกมส์ที่ตนเองได้เล่น รวมทั้งจะไม่นำเกมส์ที่ดูยากมากเกินความจำเป็นมาเสนอแนะให้ผู้เล่นใหม่
    ด้วยเหตุว่าจะก่อให้ผู้เล่นมือใหม่ รู้สึกงงเต็ก และ มีความรู้สึกว่าเข้าไม่ถึงแล้วก็ท้ายที่สุดก็เบื่อ

    February 11, 2021 at 11:33 | Report abuse | Reply
  25. Donny Stidstone

    I have just downloaded Joomla Stand Alone Server (JSAS) but i havent seen or set the password for the administrator console within.. I wondered whether or not there is a default username/password for this, if so, what is it?. . Thanks.


    February 11, 2021 at 16:46 | Report abuse | Reply
  26. Myrtice Kilcullen

    How to get Banners in Joomla to display in a certain spot?


    February 11, 2021 at 16:50 | Report abuse | Reply
  27. 메이저사이트

    Great information. Lucky me I ran across your website by chance (stumbleupon). I have bookmarked it for later!


    February 11, 2021 at 20:47 | Report abuse | Reply
  28. Alejandro Erke

    Useful info. Fortunate me I found your web site unintentionally, and I'm stunned why this accident did not took place in advance! I bookmarked it.


    February 11, 2021 at 21:59 | Report abuse | Reply
  29. what are vape pen

    An intriguing discussion is worth comment. I believe that you ought
    to publish more on this subject matter, it may not be
    a taboo subject but usually people do not discuss such issues.
    To the next! Kind regards!!

    Also visit my page what are vape pen

    February 12, 2021 at 02:18 | Report abuse | Reply
  30. situs judi slot online

    I simply could not leave your web site before suggesting that
    I extremely loved the usual information an individual provide
    on your guests? Is gonna be again frequently in order to investigate cross-check new posts

    February 12, 2021 at 08:36 | Report abuse | Reply
  31. 출장

    Very good post! We will be linking to this particularly great post on our website. Keep up the great writing.


    February 12, 2021 at 15:54 | Report abuse | Reply
  32. princess tea party business

    What i don't realize is actually how you're no longer actually much more smartly-liked than you
    might be now. You're so intelligent. You recognize therefore considerably with regards
    to this subject, produced me in my view imagine it from a lot of various
    angles. Its like men and women aren't fascinated until it's something to accomplish with Lady gaga!
    Your own stuffs excellent. At all times deal with it up!

    February 13, 2021 at 00:01 | Report abuse | Reply
  33. betscripts.com scam website WARNING

    Hi, Neat post. There's a problem with your website in web explorer, may check this?
    IE nonetheless is the market leader and a good part of other folks will miss your wonderful writing due to this problem.

    February 13, 2021 at 03:48 | Report abuse | Reply
  34. hour crib 5 wordpress.com

    Hi there, I enjoy reading through your article post.
    I wanted to write a little comment to support you.

    February 13, 2021 at 03:50 | Report abuse | Reply
  35. piano for all

    This is the perfdct website for anyone who really wants
    to understand this topic. You unddrstand a whole lot its almost tough to argue with you (not that I eally would want
    to…HaHa). You certainnly put a new spin on a topic that hass been discussed piano for all decades.
    Wonderful stuff, just great!

    February 13, 2021 at 10:55 | Report abuse | Reply
  36. 먹튀검증커뮤니티


    February 13, 2021 at 12:49 | Report abuse | Reply
  37. Get Info

    Howdy are using WordPress for your blog platform? I'm new to the blog world but I'm trying to get started and set up my own. Do you need any coding expertise to make your own blog? Any help would be really appreciated!


    February 13, 2021 at 15:52 | Report abuse | Reply
  38. 부산출장

    May I simply say what a comfort to find somebody who really understands what they are discussing on the internet. You definitely understand how to bring an issue to light and make it important. A lot more people need to read this and understand this side of the story. It's surprising you are not more popular given that you most certainly have the gift.


    February 13, 2021 at 16:46 | Report abuse | Reply
  39. childrens curtains wordpress.com

    Undeniably believe that that you stated. Your favourite reason appeared to be at the
    web the easiest thing to consider of. I say to you,
    I definitely get annoyed even as folks consider concerns that they plainly don't realize about.
    You controlled to hit the nail upon the highest and
    also defined out the whole thing with no need side-effects , people could take
    a signal. Will likely be again to get more. Thanks

    February 13, 2021 at 19:24 | Report abuse | Reply
  40. toddler bedding

    Today, I went to the beach with my kids. I found a sea shell and gave it to my 4 year old daughter and said "You can hear the ocean if you put this to your ear." She
    put the shell to her ear and screamed. There was a hermit crab inside and it
    pinched her ear. She never wants to go back! LoL I know this is entirely off
    topic but I had to tell someone!

    February 13, 2021 at 20:14 | Report abuse | Reply
  41. situs judi

    My brother recommended I might like this blog. He was totally right.
    This post truly made my day. You can not imagine simply how much time I had spent for this information! Thanks!

    February 13, 2021 at 20:41 | Report abuse | Reply
  42. 먹튀검증


    February 14, 2021 at 14:21 | Report abuse | Reply
  43. 먹튀검증커뮤니티


    February 14, 2021 at 20:00 | Report abuse | Reply
  44. Charisse Saner

    Nice read, I just passed this onto a colleague who was doing a little research on that. And he actually bought me lunch as I found it for him smile So let me rephrase that: Thank you for lunch!


    February 15, 2021 at 00:58 | Report abuse | Reply
  45. homepage

    ไหนจะเรื่องที่พัก ของกิน การเดินทาง แม้กระนั้นถ้าหากท่านเล่นผ่านเว็บไซต์พวกเรา ท่านจะสะดวกทุกที่ทุกเวลา อยู่บ้านก็สามารภทำเงินได้ เนื่องจากว่าระบบหลักการทำงานของเว็บพวกเรา รองรับการเล่นบนโทรศัพท์มือถือ ทั้งยังระบบ Android แล้วก็
    ios โดยซึ่งสามารถเล่นได้สะดวกทุกที่ทุกเวลา
    ใช้งานง่ายเหมือนเล่นเกมมือถือทั่วไป เล่นตรงไหนก็สะดวก แล้วก็เว็บไซต์ของเราได้เปิดให้ทดสอบเล่นเกมต่างๆแล้วก็มีฟรีเครดิตให้ทดลองใช้งานอีกด้วย

    February 15, 2021 at 01:29 | Report abuse | Reply
  46. clark griswold jerseys

    Hi there, just wanted to say, I loved this article.
    It was inspiring. Keep on posting!

    February 15, 2021 at 04:35 | Report abuse | Reply
  47. Herb Hronek

    Well I sincerely enjoyed studying it. This information provided by you is very constructive for accurate planning.


    February 15, 2021 at 06:05 | Report abuse | Reply
  48. 토토사이트

    This site was... how do I say it? Relevant!! Finally I have found something which helped me. Thank you!


    February 15, 2021 at 08:08 | Report abuse | Reply
  49. 먹튀검증사이트


    February 15, 2021 at 15:47 | Report abuse | Reply
  50. battery saw

    I absolutely love your blog and find a lot of your
    post's to be precisely what I'm looking for. Do you offer guest writers to
    write content for you personally? I wouldn't mind composing a post or elaborating on a number of
    the subjects you write in relation to here. Again, awesome web site!

    February 15, 2021 at 17:41 | Report abuse | Reply
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Post a comment


CNN welcomes a lively and courteous discussion as long as you follow the Rules of Conduct set forth in our Terms of Service. Comments are not pre-screened before they post. You agree that anything you post may be used, along with your name and profile picture, in accordance with our Privacy Policy and the license you have granted pursuant to our Terms of Service.

About this blog

Get a behind-the-scenes look at the latest stories from CNN Chief Medical Correspondent, Dr. Sanjay Gupta, Senior Medical Correspondent Elizabeth Cohen and the CNN Medical Unit producers. They'll share news and views on health and medical trends - info that will help you take better care of yourself and the people you love.