Speed, Ecstasy tied to teen depression
April 19th, 2012
07:35 AM ET

Speed, Ecstasy tied to teen depression

The short-lived high teenagers get from using amphetamines or the club drug MDMA - better known as Ecstasy - could lead to longer-lasting depression later on, a new study suggests.

Researchers in Canada interviewed 3,880 teenagers from low-income neighborhoods in Québec. Compared to their peers who used neither drug, teens who reported taking MDMA or amphetamines at least once in the tenth grade had 70% and 60% higher odds, respectively, of experiencing depression symptoms in the eleventh grade.

Using both drugs nearly doubled the odds of depression.

The findings don't show a cause-and-effect relationship between drug use and later depression, but they do come close. Unlike much previous research, the study controlled for a wide range of factors that might influence both drug use and depression, including problems at school and at home, a prior history of depression and anxiety, the strength of a teen's social networks, smoking and alcohol use.

"This doesn't ensure causality, but that's the closest we can get with this kind of study," says Jean-Sébastien Fallu, Ph.D., a study coauthor and an associate professor of educational psychology at the University of Montréal, in Quebec.

Health.com: Surprising causes of depression

The only way to establish cause and effect would be to create a randomized controlled trial in which one group of teens took MDMA or amphetamines and a similar group took placebo pills, but that would be impossible for ethical reasons, says Jeffrey T. Parsons, Ph.D., the chair of psychology at Hunter College, in New York City.

Other researchers have reported similar links between MDMA and amphetamine use and subsequent depression, says Parsons, who was not involved in the new study.

"We're starting to be convinced that this, in fact, causal," he says.

The study was published this week in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.

Health.com: How you can help someone who's depressed

The use of MDMA and amphetamines - including methamphetamine, or meth - is increasingly common among youths, and not just those who frequent clubs and rave parties, the authors say. In this group of teens, 8% said they used MDMA and 12% said they used amphetamines (or "speed") in the tenth grade, when they were 15 or 16 years old. Seven percent of teens said they used both drugs at least once.

Notably, the authors did not specifically ask the kids about prescription stimulants such as Adderall (also known as amphetamine salts) or Ritalin, both of which are prescribed for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and can have amphetamine-like effects when taken in high doses or otherwise misused.

Studies have shown that children with ADHD are more prone to depression.

When the tenth graders were interviewed again in the eleventh grade, 15% reported symptoms of depression, such as feelings of hopelessness and sadness, loss of appetite, and trouble concentrating. The fact that using both MDMA and amphetamine increased depression risk more than using either drug alone suggests that the two drugs may interact in harmful ways, the authors note.

Health.com: Can psychedelic drugs treat depression?

The study does have some important limitations. Although the authors did their best to control for the use of other drugs (including alcohol and marijuana), they can't completely rule out the possibility that such drugs are contributing to the association, Fallu says.

In addition, the study may present an incomplete picture because it excluded high-school dropouts and focused on relatively young teens who are likely to be experimenting with drugs rather than using them regularly. The link between drug use and depression may be different - and perhaps stronger - among older, frequent users and teens who aren't in school, Fallu says.

Copyright Health Magazine 2011

soundoff (89 Responses)
  1. Joshua

    They should follow up with that controlled double-blind study in a translatable animal model, if they didn't do it already. If they did it already they should have reported it here.

    April 19, 2012 at 08:27 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Dave

      Honestly There must be a reason why these teens seek this type of Drugs i for one that everyone lives there lives differently and yes encounter different things then must people but you cant sit here and not do anything we should look at the source if we dont then were accomplishing nothing were onl masking it for the time being

      April 19, 2012 at 10:42 | Report abuse |
    • JR

      Yes, torture animals in order to find out what we already know... kids shouldn't use drugs (including Adderall which IS an amphetamine...what terrible reporting).

      April 20, 2012 at 14:34 | Report abuse |
  2. CJ

    I do not know if it is clear that the drugs kids take causes depression or if the kids were already depressed which is why they wanted to take the drugs in order to self-medicate.

    I do believe it is very possible they taking these drugs could make an already depressed person even more depressed or someone who had no depression to get depressed due to what these drugs do to your brain chemistry.

    April 19, 2012 at 09:14 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Nathan

      The study was controlled. That means they checked whether the participants had depression before they took the drugs. Therefore, it rules hout people who took drugs BECAUSE they were depressed.

      April 19, 2012 at 17:02 | Report abuse |
    • Phil

      @ Nathan actually I'm not sure that's so. True, both drug user and non-using groups were matched for depression diagnoses and also risk factors for depression. But the idea is that drug taking could just be a symptom of inherent depression such that those who were "depressed enough" to take these drugs are more likely to be considered depressed on follow-up. It's a statistical thing, but nevertheless does exclude 100% confidence in the causal relationship between these drugs and depression.

      April 19, 2012 at 18:19 | Report abuse |
    • Bob

      These drugs are known to cause neuronal damage. This has been known for some time. Use of these drugs lead to depression.

      April 19, 2012 at 22:38 | Report abuse |
    • David Millar

      True, that is an issue. Those who develop depression may seek it out to attempt to self-medicate. It's also plausible that their depression just takes longer to fully develop to a point where they're open enough to talk about it.

      Although the study did try to control external factors, remaining error can be from:

      – depression commonly surfaces in teens through late adolescence (regardless of use or not)
      – depression was "controlled" for in the study only with self-reporting or a previous medical history. Those with mild or developing depression (unreported) would be invisible in the "before" stage

      April 20, 2012 at 08:15 | Report abuse |
    • eric

      There are plenty of depressed people who don't realize they are depressed. Were they CLINICALLY evaluated for depression before they took MDMA?

      Consider the fact that my uncle didn't have diabetes until he went to the doctor.

      April 20, 2012 at 13:40 | Report abuse |
    • truebob

      "it is known" "they told us" "common knowledge" NOT science.

      April 21, 2012 at 10:26 | Report abuse |
    • Larry

      @Bob youre right. Everybody listen to bob. Ecstasy cause brain damage and can lead to depression as a result. This is nothing new.

      April 23, 2012 at 05:16 | Report abuse |
  3. Donna

    They could at least do blood draws and screen against depression-related biomarkers.

    April 19, 2012 at 09:34 | Report abuse | Reply
  4. Anon

    Real estascy hasn't been available for years. Now all that is peddled is fake stuff that poorly mimics the effects. Kids don't know the difference bc they never had the good stuff. You also can't take it more than once a month/two months or else your serotonin will become depleted and you will become depressed.

    April 19, 2012 at 09:46 | Report abuse | Reply
    • fretlessbass


      April 19, 2012 at 14:16 | Report abuse |
    • andrew

      this is true. the new stuff is just speed and smack mixed with minimal mdma. real mdma is pure love.

      April 19, 2012 at 14:33 | Report abuse |
    • PlayCracktheSky

      Actually you can still get pure mdma just not in an ecstacy tablet. Now its called molly and i have only seen it in powder form.

      April 19, 2012 at 16:52 | Report abuse |
  5. Anon

    Taken rarely (less than 10 times a year), ecstasy (pure) is perfectly safe, has no long term effects on the brain, and can actually help improve mood/mental condition. One big problem though is that pretty much all ecstasy is mixed with at least speed if not heroin, and doing so obviously makes a otherwise safe drug (when used rarely) dangerous.

    April 19, 2012 at 09:51 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Jskirzzle

      please stop perpetuating the urban myth of ecstasy pills containing heroin. why on earth would ecstasy makers (who are trying to make a profit) cut there pills with something as expensive, illegal, and hard to come by like heroin? There was an interview done with a NYPD drug detective who said in the 15 years hes been investigating ecstasy he has never found a pill cut with heroin. They are mostly cut with legal fillers and stimulants that are cheap and easy to get

      April 19, 2012 at 11:23 | Report abuse |
    • fretlessbass

      I always wondered about the first wave of stuff that started coming around after pure MDMA (1993ish.) The first things I saw were called "Chocolate Chips". They were light brown with dark brown specks in them that the dealers claimed were heroin. I remember them being pretty good, but nowhere near as good as the regular 'ol yellow pills that were pure MDMA.

      April 19, 2012 at 14:21 | Report abuse |
    • andrew

      It does have heroin. knew a girl that was taking some, she got sick, they tested her at the hospital, came back positive for meth, mdma, and heroin. and she only took the pill. don't talk about stuff you don't know about.

      April 19, 2012 at 14:34 | Report abuse |
    • DeFace

      There is no heroin in Ecstasy, never has been. A total urban legend.

      April 19, 2012 at 15:45 | Report abuse |
    • xzanthius

      At least here in Canada, according to drug analysis of seized pills most of our "x-tasy" is actually just Crystal Meth. Kids have no freaking idea what they are taking. Gone are the days of the local "chemist" more interested in the molecule than the profit behind it. The drugs are bad. Prohabition has successfully pushed almost all "mind expanding" chemicals off the streets because they are not addictive and therefore not profitable. That being said... this study is possibly flawed as I would assume that teenage kids who take drugs most likely have neglectful parents. That being said... drugs in general, as they tend to disrupt the body, are potential triggers of depression.

      April 19, 2012 at 20:03 | Report abuse |
    • tevii

      I wont say it has NEVER been cut with heroin. But I can say OVERALL that is a myth. The whoel point of cutting something is to make more money on less product. Heroin costs more so that is not cost effective to the dealers. Its nonsens

      April 20, 2012 at 19:23 | Report abuse |
    • nat9387

      Ok seriously exstacy is not cut with heroine, it makes absolutely no sense. Heroine is WAY more expensive so why would you take an already cheap drug and cut it with an expensive one???

      April 20, 2012 at 19:23 | Report abuse |
  6. 1tag2

    Jskirzzle, most people just regurgitate what they have heard. Just like the people who have never used cannabis, but go around saying that it is bad for your health and has no medicinal qualities. If you don't

    April 19, 2012 at 12:30 | Report abuse | Reply
    • xzanthius

      I have taken pure MDMA... it is a great high with potentially therapeutic benifits (has been used to lift people OUT of depression). That being said... it is also pretty harsh... takes a good week to feel 100% afterward (if you dont have a tolerance). I have heard that most negative effects would be mitigated by combining it with prozac but I dont do drugs anymore to try it. (well maybe one day)

      April 19, 2012 at 20:06 | Report abuse |
    • @xzanthius

      @xzanthius- You don't know much about how the brain works. I had depression and anxiety in the past and loved the feeling alcohol and benzos gave me even though I wasn't an addict. I read in a book about how the brain works that those drugs affect the brain by attaching to receptors involved in anxiety and so they make you feel more calm and have less inhabitions. Then when someone is coming off of them like an alcoholic trying to become sober it makes someone have more anxiety...basically you messed with your system by taking the drugs. So by that thought process a person should be very cautions about taking x to lift your mood...bc after a while you will end up having a problem with depression. I have gotten into eastern spirituality and now meditate to improve my mood.

      April 21, 2012 at 19:45 | Report abuse |
  7. 1tag2

    If you don't know 1st hand from experience or research, STFU!

    April 19, 2012 at 12:31 | Report abuse | Reply
  8. hythloday

    About 15 years ago during my sophmore/junior years of high school I was heavily caught up in LA's rave scene. Dropping more than 30 times we quit by our senior year after one of our friends overdosed. That year I experienced massive mood swings, severe depression, and all around general apathy for life. I can confirm that for me, the long term effects of ecstacy are really dangerous.

    April 19, 2012 at 12:41 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Mollysincewayback

      I've been taking this stuff for 11 years and there is nothing wrong with me. In fact, I feel a lot more at peace with myself and have a much more opened mind. I am not a drug addict, I am not a bad person, I'm not negatively influencing the youth of America. I'm simply experiencing sensations unattainable through anymore of natural stimulant. Obviously, everything should be practiced in moderation and never abused. And even if there were any side effects, I wouldn't do it any other way. Live life once, open your mind to new things, learn, feel alive, and go out with a bang.

      April 22, 2012 at 13:11 | Report abuse |
  9. deathstalker187

    First of all MDMA and Meth a way different as far as drugs go and the high you get. Meth is strait up evil drug MDMA has a very different effect. It is known for sure that MDMA does cause depression in the short term because it uses up much of your natural serotonin in a short time. Because of this it takes a few days to rebuild up your levels of serotonin back to the standard normal your body needs.

    Meth on the other hand is much closer to the high you get from LSD or Mescaline. The psychological effect is much different and in my opinion your thoughts are turned to violence and chaos. You are wired up can’t sleep and can stay up for days and days on this drug. After a few days being around someone that has been staying high like this because hazardous to your health and the chances of something bad happening in the near future increase significantly. I believe that the negative effects from Meth are far worse then anything MDMA causes and also much longer lasting. It has a much higher level of psychological changes and they are much longer term.

    Although the high and mental changes you go through on Meth are similar to LSD and Mescaline people who have used LSD will tell you Meth is by far the more evil and damaging drug and would give LSD a bad name.

    The three worst drugs on the street are Meth, Crack and Heroin. I am not sure which of the three is the worst but if you ask me it is a toss up between Meth and Crack. Heroin while it is the king of killers it does not turn you into a totally evil person the way Meth and Crack will.

    April 19, 2012 at 12:47 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Mishagothe

      Thanks for a fact based reply. I have seen what MDMA can do to teenagers. It can be a wonderful drug, but anyone under 21 with a still developing brains should shun it and all drugs. One thing this article doesn't touch on – 98% of the "drugs" kids buy are crap, pure or even from the same chemical tree ecstasy is extremely rare. Most of the time they are doing something a dealer made from aspirin and rat poison.

      April 19, 2012 at 14:11 | Report abuse |
    • SanaScholar

      I can't think of two drugs more DISSIMILAR than methamphetamine and LSD (or mescaline for that matter). Not sure what you're on about, but in terms of cognitive response amphetamine and hallucinogens are two very different things.

      April 20, 2012 at 16:20 | Report abuse |
    • CCC

      MDMA "ecstasy" methylenedioxymethamphetamine is an amphetamine. "Meth" methamphetamine is an amphetamine. They are not way different.

      April 22, 2012 at 18:11 | Report abuse |
  10. Joe

    I can *not* wrap my mind around what in the world people are thinking the first time they pop a pill, or smoke on a cigarette or joint, or especially stick a needle in their arm.

    In all my years, I just simply can't imagine being in a mindset where this would be some logical or acceptable action. Life is great, why do people do this?

    April 19, 2012 at 12:51 | Report abuse | Reply
    • deathstalker187

      One day you may be in enough pain to where you need to take a few pills to feel better. In a way that is exactly what they are doing even if they are not trying to make the physical pain go away it helps with the mental pain. I hope you are never in enough pain to where you need pain meds but if that day comes you will see the night and day difference one small pill can make.

      April 19, 2012 at 12:58 | Report abuse |
    • Joe

      From what I understand, it doesn't "help" anything... it masks it. If you put on a mask, you're still ugly. If you put a band-aid on a cancerous lesion, you still have cancer. This doesn't address the root of the issue.

      Again, logically this makes zero sense. Why are we, as Americans living in the 2012, not any smarter than this?

      April 19, 2012 at 13:48 | Report abuse |
    • john doe

      You can't understand because you've never tried it. And that's exactly it – you've made a judgement before you've even gotten the chance to understand the whole situation. There are so many things everybody makes assumptions about, but in the end, they're just assumptions.

      People have different reasons for using drugs. Some people I know use it almost as a spiritual uplifting. It allows them to think in different ways and it allows them to be open minded. I don't think that doing pure mdma once a year or once every few years will cause long term damage to the brain, but trying it can change a life, can change mindsets, can change ways of thinking.

      Its like saying, stats show that if you drive a car, you are more likely to get in a car accident than somebody who does not drive cars. and x% of car accidents are fatal. Why would you choose to drive a car? life is great otherwise, why put yourself in a position where you increase your chances of injury...

      April 19, 2012 at 14:55 | Report abuse |
    • rick

      joe: it is the thrill of an altered consciousness. some do it through drugs, some do it through exercise, some do it through religion, some do it through extreme sports

      April 19, 2012 at 17:40 | Report abuse |
    • jen58

      u can not lump "smoking a joint" in the same vein as these other drugs - MJ is highly (pun intended) medicinal - i went 35+ years with severe depression, rapid cycle bipolar and 15+ years with chronic pain, i was a basketcase, nothing worked for me, not even prescribed medication, until i started smoking MJ i had a hard time keeping a job, or being a good wife/mother/friend...ever since MJ i have a life now - also i watched my husband go thru cancer and chemo and MJ kept him alive - MJ saves lives, not destroys them.

      April 22, 2012 at 10:46 | Report abuse |
    • Layla

      Jen58: MJ saves lives, not destroys them? I'm glad for your "success" story, but can't agree with you. My seventeen y.o. son has been in six rehabs since he was thirteen. Can't say it's been a positive experience for this family.

      April 23, 2012 at 07:44 | Report abuse |
  11. AnotherAtheist

    'life is great, why do people do this?' REALLY? Life may be great where You are, but it's a pretty safe bet that it ain't so good for many others. People who have no control over their lives tend to find life pretty bleak. And who has less control than a teenager? Or a poverty-stricken, single, non-white, female parent? Or a victim of abuse? I'm surprised they haven't all commited suicide.

    April 19, 2012 at 13:46 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Joe

      Ah, but herein lies the problem. Everyone has control.

      People are taught to think that they don't. People hear things like "He made me angry"... no one *makes* you angry, you *choose* to be.

      This just seems like a case of people living in the year 2012 being cretins.

      April 19, 2012 at 13:49 | Report abuse |
  12. AnotherAtheist

    We're talking about teenagers. A demographic known to display short-sighted, reckless and illogical behavior. As for other drug users, many of those have few options in life. Most probably weren't taught how to make a silk purse out of a poor piggy's ear.

    April 19, 2012 at 13:58 | Report abuse | Reply
  13. andrew

    classic example of the causation/correlation fallacy. Depressed teens could be more prone to take the drugs.

    April 19, 2012 at 14:30 | Report abuse | Reply
  14. tonybotz

    can you feel the ecstasy!? God, i miss those days!

    April 19, 2012 at 15:01 | Report abuse | Reply
  15. Terry48

    Stupid is as stupid does! You can't fix stupid!

    April 19, 2012 at 15:45 | Report abuse | Reply
  16. Nancy

    Ask a teenager what is easier to purchase, the drugs mentioned in this article or alcohol and cigarettes? You guessed correct, illegal drugs, why, because they are ILLEGAL and NOT REGULATED. I think it's about time we end the war on some drugs.

    April 19, 2012 at 16:39 | Report abuse | Reply
  17. Nancy

    Ahh, best time in my life making love in sound factory night club NYC at 9am on X. Those were the days. NOT depressed then.

    April 19, 2012 at 16:41 | Report abuse | Reply
    • GeorgeBos95

      Oh, Nancy!

      April 19, 2012 at 17:05 | Report abuse |
    • Josh

      God bless! 🙂

      April 20, 2012 at 15:50 | Report abuse |
  18. GeorgeBos95

    Or maybe the kids most likely to seek a high are predisposed to depression...whether due to biochemistry, or environment.

    April 19, 2012 at 17:04 | Report abuse | Reply
  19. sean mccarthy

    I was convicted of conspearasy to distribute mdma in a federal court in manhaton when the judge was presented with all the available sience on mdma and its afects on the mind and body he altered the u s sentencing guide lines cuting them allmost in half

    April 19, 2012 at 19:25 | Report abuse | Reply
  20. Lars Babaganoosh

    Mmm, mmm, mmm, I remember the late 90's/early 2000's. Great pills out there. Going to NAF studios, everybody was whacked out. Cops were crooked. DJ's were loaded. You could look across the room, lock eyes with someone and you know there were in the same place you were. Light shows, back rubs, LOVE IT.

    April 20, 2012 at 09:21 | Report abuse | Reply
  21. Robert Downey Jr1.

    Opinion – I used X from 1997 to 1999. Randomly and for fun @ 1st. I became "addicted" using it once a week because it's abilty to remove your present inhibitions is astronomical giving me an invincible feeling with the ability to express it physically, emotionally, and verbally. However, in my opinion, the studies findings that X causes depression is valid. The high is so GOOD that the come down is SO bad. As a result of these devastating "Come downs" the brain remembers the lows and revisits them during times of life struggles whether it be job related, injury related, body illness, relationship stress, pessimism about future possiblities for sex, entertainment or general enlightenment. The brain function reverts back to the "low" experienced during "come downs" and somewhat suddenly depression sets in and getting out of bed becomes impossible followed at times by suicidal idealogy. I would suggest thinking long and hard before using Extasy whether it's legal or not in your country. Sure, it may not happen to you but it should come with a warning. Here it is.

    April 20, 2012 at 10:32 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Robert Downey Jr Jr

      So much misinformation on MDMA. A remidy/cure for depression? Addictive?? As a recreational user for 20+ yrs, I've never met someone who became "addictive". Of course there were those that abused it more than others, and there were negative consequences for many. In truth, though, most had much deeper issues (alchohol, low self-esteem, family issues, etc.) that were bigger contributers tp their life derailment. I've dappled in most "substances" (smoking, alchohol and more) and say MDMA (in its purest form, or close to it) is something all should try (as adults) before judging

      April 21, 2012 at 00:35 | Report abuse |
  22. tevii

    Yes you can be temporarily depressed after using ecstasy because it uses up serotonin. To any kids doing this.There are ways to do this responsibly so there are no long term effects. It takes 2 weeks to replenish the serotonin that you use while rolling. So if you insist on doing it, dont do it more than once every two weeks, otherwise you can have permanent damage. Like anything overuse is the problem. Also get yourself a bottle of 5HTP and start taking those the day after and take the 2 weeks after. This helps boost the serotonin.

    April 20, 2012 at 10:55 | Report abuse | Reply
    • BrentAZ

      Don't tell kids to do E.

      Even if what you say is true, a 16 y/o will not be able to control themselves enough. You are a moron.

      April 20, 2012 at 14:23 | Report abuse |
    • tevii

      Actually if you read it I said "If you insist on doing it" you arent stopping teens from doing what they want. So at least give them REAL information. You are the moron. Im NOT condoning anything, but this country needs to stop lying to their children if you want them to find everything else you have to say to have any credibility.
      War on drugs has been a waste of time and money and is based priomarily on lies anyway.

      April 20, 2012 at 19:04 | Report abuse |
    • tevii

      You should be more concerned with the number of children hooked on Ritalin or Adderal. Ecstasy was once a legal narcotice meant to help as well. And i promise in the near future Ritalin and Adderal will be illegal. But our children will be addicted.

      April 20, 2012 at 19:07 | Report abuse |
  23. Phillip Anthony Biondo

    I am depressed because it's illegal.

    Vote Biondo for President 2012 of the Fraternity Party! Any intelligent human knows we are Sapiens, a species of Ape closely related to Chimpanzees. All safe drugs, prescription and illegal will be legal. Navy Nuclear Spaceship colonizing the Milky Way Galaxy. Free Healthcare like Canada and some European countries. Homeless shelters, Rice, soy sauce, and a multivitamin for the poor, Environmentally intelligent policy, Big Bang in Physics, Evolution in Biology. Free College like k-12, Strong Military, Technological Singularity in 2045, superhuman artificial intelligence, Higher taxes, very high taxes for Billionaires. If that Sheriff is right that Obama’s birth certificate is a forgery than is he even eligable for reelection?

    April 20, 2012 at 12:16 | Report abuse | Reply
  24. Mike

    Are these studies for real? Common Sense is always the last study studied.

    April 20, 2012 at 12:42 | Report abuse | Reply
  25. Yep

    I stopped reading after "the study does not show cause and effect". In other words, spin spin spin

    April 20, 2012 at 13:07 | Report abuse | Reply
    • BrentAZ

      Actually that is called being honest about your study.

      April 20, 2012 at 14:20 | Report abuse |
    • Josh

      "Actually that is called being honest about your study." AKA it's an opinion, not news.

      April 20, 2012 at 15:53 | Report abuse |
  26. Jez

    Wow – this is groundbreaking news – you crash after a high. Now who'd have thought of that? (sarcasm...)

    April 21, 2012 at 14:51 | Report abuse | Reply
  27. ikon4u

    Is this really news , mdma effects your serotonin which controls mood.

    April 22, 2012 at 09:22 | Report abuse | Reply
  28. Almost Meaningless Study

    It's so crystal clear that the kids with depression problems in school are much more likely to be experimenting with ecstacy and other substances so a double blind study is really necessary. Since this can't easily be done with humans, animal studies could be done.

    One study which COULD be done on humans is to take the group of depressed ecstacy users and follow their depression over time. Compare this group to a group of non-ecstacy using depressed people and compare the relative rate of improvement or decrease in depression. If ecstacy is really a causal factor then they should see a siginificant difference in results between these two groups of people.

    They will probably never do this study because it's hard to get funding to do scientific studies which have the possibility of showing a drug is actually not harmful. Even though scientific studies are "not biased" by there very nature, they can be designed in such a way to "favor" one outcome over the other which is why study design is so critical to assessing the results of a study.

    April 23, 2012 at 12:17 | Report abuse | Reply
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