Two dead in Louisiana after unclean water used in neti pots
December 16th, 2011
07:24 PM ET

Two dead in Louisiana after unclean water used in neti pots

Louisiana health officials are warning residents not to use nonsterilized tap water in neti pots after the deaths of two people who exposed their brains to a deadly amoeba while flushing out their nasal passages.

The amoeba, Naegleria fowleri, can be found in lakes and ponds as well as in contaminated lukewarm tap water. The organism doesn't pose a threat when ingested, but if it becomes lodged in a person's nose it can end up in the brain and cause an infection.

The infection, lethal in 95% of cases, triggers an array of symptoms that resemble those of bacterial meningitis, including vomiting, headaches and sleepiness. As it progresses, it can cause changes in a person’s behavior and lead to confusion and hallucinations. It usually causes death within one to 12 days, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals issued its warning after a 51-year-old woman in DeSoto Parish died after rinsing her sinuses with a neti pot, a small vessel used to pour warm water into one nostril and out the other. Earlier this year, a 20-year-old man near New Orleans died after contracting the infection in the same way.

Health.com: 10 states where rare and exotic diseases lurk

"Tap water is safe for drinking, but not for irrigating your nose," said Dr. Raoult Ratard, Louisiana state epidemiologist in a statement. Ratard urged neti-pot users to fill the pots only with distilled, sterile, or previously boiled water, and to rinse and dry them after each use.

Health.com: Nasal washing sounds gross, but it works

The infection, known as primary amebic meningoencephalitis, is extremely rare. In the previous decade, just 32 cases have been reported in the United States, according to the CDC. Only one person is known to have survived.

Health.com: Is it a cold—or sinus infection?

Deaths involving neti pots are even more rare. Most deaths from the amoeba, including three last summer, occur in Southern states during the summer, when people swim in warm freshwater where Naegleria fowleri lurks.

Madison Park contributed to this report. 

Copyright Health Magazine 2011

Post by:
Filed under: Cold and flu • Health.com

soundoff (541 Responses)
  1. P Graves

    The sad thing is that many die every die from unclean water in Louisiana. Won't you please help? Do it for the children.

    December 17, 2011 at 19:03 | Report abuse | Reply
    • hannah1

      People die EVERY DAY in Louisiana from the water? I don't think so. Where do you read this stuff? "Please help" how?
      For what children? Most of us these days have all we can do to take care of our OWN children. Why don't you send all your money to Louisiana??

      December 17, 2011 at 19:21 | Report abuse |
    • Portland tony

      Come on...Quite Trolling!

      December 17, 2011 at 19:30 | Report abuse |
    • Portland tony

      Sorry that's "quit".

      December 17, 2011 at 19:33 | Report abuse |
    • Chalie

      Hannah1....it was a joke.

      December 17, 2011 at 23:14 | Report abuse |
    • Harry Manback

      P Graves here makes a fantastic point; it's clearly time the US Government declared a "War on Water". Hopefully it will be almost as effective as the War on Drugs!

      December 18, 2011 at 00:47 | Report abuse |
    • Jim

      Cool, man

      December 18, 2011 at 17:57 | Report abuse |
    • ser

      i blame Dr. Oz. he endorses the use of these neti pots. he even showcased them on his show....he is to blame for this...i bet he didn't tell people to use sanitized water. then someone did and now look....2 people are dead.

      December 20, 2011 at 12:20 | Report abuse |
  2. Sailingwindward

    How is possible in the 21st Century to have unclean public tap water in American?

    December 17, 2011 at 19:17 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Ara

      It's safe for consumption, but not for pouring up into your sinus. The amoeba doesn't do anything if ingested, it's when it gets into the body through other means that it causes problems. The tap water, especially in major cities, is remarkably healthy and clean...when used in the proper way.

      December 17, 2011 at 19:55 | Report abuse |
    • Bryan

      @ ara, what about showering?

      God forbid you tilt your head wrong and get some shower water blasted up your nose...just saying...
      I'm not calling afoul on the US water system, i think its perfectly fine.
      to me 3-10 deaths a year as a result of a waterborne organism, in a country with horrendously aging infrastructure and hundreds of millions of "water drinkers" is acceptable.

      December 17, 2011 at 22:43 | Report abuse |
    • John Galt

      Lol.. Louisiana hello. Not exactly the technology mecca of the world as can be seen from their Hurricane preparation prior to Katrina..

      December 17, 2011 at 23:34 | Report abuse |
    • Mitch

      Most tap water in the US comes from a water source that sanitary sewer water is discharged into. For instance, Clinton Iowa discharges after "treatment" into the Mississippi river then downstream Davenport Iowa sucks in water from the Mississippi river or wells that the river trickles into via sand and after "treatment" the water is returned again from the sewage plant. There are many cities along the Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Columbia, Rio Grande, Cedar, Wisconsin... that all do the same. Typical pre-treatment for tap water involves adding chlorine and allowing bacteria and organisms to be killed over time. Sock, sand, and comb filters capture most visible fecal matter prior to the chemical treatment.

      December 17, 2011 at 23:48 | Report abuse |
    • Chuck

      American tap water is not sterile... far from it. But it doesn't need to be sterile for it to be perfectly safe for cooking, drinking, washing, and most bathing. The problem pointed out in this article comes when the water is used in a most perculiar way.

      World-wide, the greatest cause of human death is unclean water, but not so much in the US.

      December 19, 2011 at 13:47 | Report abuse |
    • SixDegrees

      Please enlighten us as to how it would be possible to have perfectly clean, sterile water distributed to hundreds of millions of people. Getting rid of the last tiny handful of disease cases would cost as much again as the entire system. Law of diminishing returns at work.

      December 20, 2011 at 03:11 | Report abuse |
  3. emily

    I just got rid of my Neti Pot. I don't like to take chances. Better safe then sorry... Anyways, the last time I used mine, my sinus infection got worse.

    December 17, 2011 at 19:57 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Luis Espinal

      Bro, ever heard of bottled water? How about boiling/microwaving it before use with a neti pot? I mean seriously, it's not rocket science.

      December 17, 2011 at 22:59 | Report abuse |
    • Dana

      and last time I checked it says, use distilled water, not tap.

      December 19, 2011 at 10:15 | Report abuse |
    • Poodles

      Most bottled water is tap water.

      December 19, 2011 at 11:30 | Report abuse |
  4. Dan

    So if they can drink the water but not get it up their noses. How do they shower or bathe ?

    December 17, 2011 at 20:20 | Report abuse | Reply
    • brian

      So Dan do you suck water up your nose when you shower? You know you don't have to put your feet up to the shower head to wash them right?

      December 17, 2011 at 20:57 | Report abuse |
    • Portland tony

      Unless you take cold showers, the water heater should take care of most lurking amoebas and if you do take cold showers, those nasty devils water die in cold water. Besides, there maybe a lot of strange stuff in your water supply, but amoeba(s) no. Remember: stagnant, warm ponds. That's where they thrive.

      December 17, 2011 at 21:23 | Report abuse |
    • netipotuser

      Getting water "up your nose" and into your sinus cavity like with a netipot are vastly different. You are showing your ignorence, do some research before embarrassing yourself.

      December 18, 2011 at 00:48 | Report abuse |
    • J.C.

      In 40 years of showering, I can't remember a single time that water shot up my nose. Do you shower upside down like a bat?

      December 19, 2011 at 10:30 | Report abuse |
  5. stinky

    THey don't shower or bathe.

    December 17, 2011 at 20:39 | Report abuse | Reply
    • ser

      hahahaaha....good point

      December 20, 2011 at 12:23 | Report abuse |
  6. entertained

    The good thing is... these comments r too damn funny! Pot, dristan, white people, nose irrigation...good stuff 😀 gotta love CNN

    December 17, 2011 at 22:23 | Report abuse | Reply
  7. entertained

    😀 😀 😀 😀 😀

    December 17, 2011 at 22:24 | Report abuse | Reply
  8. Science

    Protozoa, which is what naegleria fowleri actually is, cannot tolerate the high temps of most modern hot water heaters nor can they withstand modern municipal chlorination. Let's not mention the fact that neti water is not water but saline and protozoa can't live in that either. These people dies from geothermally heated tepid water untreated by municipal chlorination and likely ingested without first being mixed with salt. Research the facts and read the CDC report on this event for science and fact. This article is full of blatantly inflammatory, patently false fiction.

    December 17, 2011 at 22:38 | Report abuse | Reply
    • rh

      That's good to know. I use a saline rinse bottle, and I use hot tap water – not the hottest, but over 100 degrees. I add the saline that they recommend.

      But I will go out and buy a bottle of distilled water to use in the future.

      December 19, 2011 at 12:15 | Report abuse |
  9. Ocie

    Yeah, if you read the instructions on the neti pot box, it will always tell you to use boiled or distilled water everytime you irrigate. They don't tell you exactly why, just that it is to avoid illness. However, after reading this article the importance of following instructions, even if you don't exactly understand them, with any medicine is highlighted.

    December 17, 2011 at 23:05 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Chuck

      Mr. Ocie has put is finger directly on the root problem here: if you read the instructions on the neti pot box, it will always tell you to use boiled or distilled water .... They don't tell you exactly why, just that it is to avoid illness.

      A well-written warning always tells why. If you put up a sign that says, "Do not press this button," people will be almost magnetically drawn to press the button. But, if the sign says, "Do not press this button because it releases the trap door you're standing on and drops you into a furnace," then people will not press the button.

      Unfortunately, especially in the "natural/health products" market, manufacturers don't like to talk in much detail about the dangers associated with their products. Drug manufactures usually over do it. We've all seen the commercials and wondered why anyone would take a drug for toe nail fungus if one of the possible side effects is sudden death. The natural/health products market, though, want to promote the illusion that their products are simple, natural, perfectly safe, and can do only good.

      December 19, 2011 at 13:56 | Report abuse |
    • XX or XY?

      Chuck, why do you assume Ocie is male? If Ocie has correctly read the instructions on something, s/he is far more likely to be female.

      December 19, 2011 at 18:24 | Report abuse |
    • Janice

      This is not simply a case of not reading directions. The neti pot I bought about 18 months ago at Walgreens has instructions that say to use lukewarm TAP water. It does not say to boil it, use distilled water or anything like that. After seeing this story, I contacted manufacturer and was told they are changing their directions to reflect this new health concern. I never even considered that something potentially harmful could be in the water I drink everyday. I live in a major metro area with water quality that is consistently rated as excellent.

      December 20, 2011 at 11:15 | Report abuse |
  10. netipotuser

    I use this method often and I use the filtered water and a pre packaged solution. Anyone that puts tap water (especially warm) in a netipot obviously never did their research or read the directions.

    December 18, 2011 at 00:45 | Report abuse | Reply
  11. Carol

    I died a few months ago after using a neti pot. becareful!

    December 18, 2011 at 01:25 | Report abuse | Reply
    • pacman357

      Mine turned me into a newt once.

      I got better.

      December 18, 2011 at 05:21 | Report abuse |
  12. Sean

    Dr. Ratard...lol...

    December 18, 2011 at 01:38 | Report abuse | Reply
  13. pacman357


    I have long said that however I die, I hope it is not in such a manner that makes headlines. I don't want some spouse calling out to his/her spouse from behind the newspaper, "hey, honey...look how this friggin' guy died!"

    December 18, 2011 at 05:20 | Report abuse | Reply
    • me

      That was funny....

      December 20, 2011 at 07:46 | Report abuse |
  14. Mr. Sinister

    I've been washing out my nose with tap water mixed with a little table salt for years without incident. Thirty-two cases among 310 million people is hardly something to worry about. Your chances of dying in a car accident are far higher than dying of this exotic and rare disease.

    December 18, 2011 at 05:20 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Walt

      It's thirty-two cases out of the number of people who use neti pots, a lot scarier ratio.

      December 18, 2011 at 20:32 | Report abuse |
    • BlackYowe

      Who knows how many more people have died this way and no one thought to ask if they used a neti pot. The fact is our noses are set up naturally to get rid of dirt and pollen. When you mess with the linings of your sinuses and nose you are inviting infection. I have always thought neti pots were snake oil remedy and unsafe.

      December 18, 2011 at 22:34 | Report abuse |
    • vbscript2

      Walt: The vast majority of those 32 was not from neti pots. It was from swimming in warm lakes and get water up their nose. Only a few cases have been from neti pots.

      BlackYowe: The CDC knows. And the answer is 32. And they probably didn't ask about neti pots in most cases because it was already known to have been from lake water.

      December 19, 2011 at 09:45 | Report abuse |
  15. Pam

    Saline solution is the best thing. If used it will help clean out nasal passages and it is sterile.

    December 18, 2011 at 11:22 | Report abuse | Reply
    • ser

      can't people just use a damn kleenex and blow their nose...or better yet...stick your damn finger (of course after washing with antibacterial soap or using antibacterial hand lotion) up your nose and pull that snot out.

      December 20, 2011 at 12:28 | Report abuse |
  16. Mary Davis

    Our thoughts and prayers are with the families who lost their loved ones.

    December 18, 2011 at 12:48 | Report abuse | Reply
  17. BlackYowe

    This is just so sad. I have friends who are always telling me to use these I am not going to pour water up my nose for any reason any more than I am going to get a skin peel. I don't think its wise to disrupt the mucus membranes in your head all the time. That is your shield against infection.

    December 18, 2011 at 22:16 | Report abuse | Reply
  18. Yonah

    Dihydrogen monoxide in the water has proven lethal in every state in the country, and in most other countries as well, and it has been detected in every water sample ever tested for it. Extremely small amounts usually don't do too much damage.

    December 19, 2011 at 00:20 | Report abuse | Reply
    • vbscript2

      Yeah, breathing DHMO is often fatal. The presence of DHMO in our oceans is also a known contributor to hurricane formation. It's also one of the largest causes of soil erosion and has been detected in all of the melting Arctic ice.

      December 19, 2011 at 09:50 | Report abuse |
    • J.C.

      There was a California town that briefly considered banning DHMO. Why haven't more municipalities taken action against this dangerous chemical?

      December 19, 2011 at 10:34 | Report abuse |
    • THomas

      Let's get government to ban the substance!
      Once we've gotten it registered as dangerous, with the potential of abuse, we could sell it on the black market to those that are already addicted!

      December 21, 2011 at 04:25 | Report abuse |
    • Terry

      Dihydrogen Monoxide



      December 22, 2011 at 11:19 | Report abuse |
  19. Frangible

    People don't realize how common this thing is. It's ubiquitous in warm freshwater bodies. If that water containing *one* (they reproduce by fission) gets up to your olfactory nerve, chances are you will die. This was from *tapwater*. Unlike bacteria, you have little defense against it, and it is highly resistant to drugs.

    I looked at the results of an animal study in mice, considered a suitable model for PAM. How many mice died that didn't receive the experimental treatment? 100% of them in 4 different control groups.

    Only flush your sinuses with sterilized water.

    The reason you don't see more deaths from something this common is it's actually difficult to get water that far up your sinuses normally.

    December 19, 2011 at 01:27 | Report abuse | Reply
  20. MonkeyMan

    This is why I drink bottled water. I don't want poop, chemicals or killer bacteria in the water I use.

    December 19, 2011 at 07:17 | Report abuse | Reply
    • IgM

      Where do you think bottled water comes from? It goes through a similar treatment process, and contributes to polluting the world

      December 19, 2011 at 09:04 | Report abuse |
    • SixDegrees

      Uh – nearly all of the bottled water sold is tap water. And if you've managed to drink actual spring water, that is more likely to contain microorganisms than tap water anyway.

      December 20, 2011 at 03:16 | Report abuse |
  21. Stardust

    can I still use tap water for my regular enemmas?

    December 19, 2011 at 08:53 | Report abuse | Reply
    • ser

      best question ever....thanks for that

      December 20, 2011 at 12:31 | Report abuse |
    • Debbie

      Don't use the tap water for enemies either, I heard you can get buttulism that way.

      October 20, 2012 at 23:55 | Report abuse |
  22. Dolores Regina

    I'm reading a book from the dollar store-Bottlemania by Elizabeth Royte. It gives the history of water purification and explains what processes major water companies use to clean the water before it is bottled. it also explains the biology and health risks behind processing water whether it comes from out taps or is bottled in a plant. IT IS MOST IMPORT ANT THAT THE PIPES THAT BRING WATER INTO OUR HOUSES OR THROUGH OR UNDER THE LAND TO BOTTLING PLANTS BE CLEAN AND SANITARY AND NOT LEAD BASED. AS OTHER PEOPLE COMMENTED, USE COMMON SENSE .Read directions when using a netti pot. My dad had me inhale warm tap water straight up my nose after he sprinkled salt into my hand. It worked for me as a kid, but not I use the smallest saline containers to squirt it up my nose to clean out my sinuses. I sip nettle tea and use Gold"s white creamy Horseradish sauce on my roasted potatoes or fish to keep my sinuses open. Surprisingly the tea and horseradish use ( natural ways) have radically diminished my need for over the counter medications to clear my sinuses. We need to think of foods also as a way fs staying healthy. Eating good hot soup on a cold day will help clear your sinuses!

    December 19, 2011 at 10:41 | Report abuse | Reply
  23. too bad

    Too bad they are too stupid to read taht they need to boil the water first!!!

    December 19, 2011 at 12:29 | Report abuse | Reply
  24. Dave

    They say tap water can kill you if it gets in your nose, like it's nothing new to them. I never heard this in my life. The should do a better job of letting people know information like this if they expect to not be sued over it, or better yet fix the problem. The water quality is probably dropping for economic reasons, but they should at least tell us

    December 19, 2011 at 14:35 | Report abuse | Reply
    • natural selection

      Davie boy, it's called "personal responsibility". You are responsible for your own actions. Tap water is perfectly safe for drinking and bathing. If you deliberately squirt crap way up your nose and have a problem, it's on you. We don't live in a socialist nanny-state and the Earth is NOT a safe place. Deal with it or get selected out.

      December 19, 2011 at 18:32 | Report abuse |
  25. ss

    di-hydrogen monoxide is a dangerous chemical harboring several biological agents. We need it banned !

    December 19, 2011 at 14:49 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Terry

      Dihydrogen Monoxide



      December 22, 2011 at 11:24 | Report abuse |
  26. Leeanne

    And why does ANYBODY need to shoot water up their nose anyway? Ever heard of tissues?

    December 19, 2011 at 16:44 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Voltairine

      There are medical reasons for doing this like sinus infections and other nasal problems for which a tissue would be useless. I have a roommate who has to do this every night.

      December 19, 2011 at 17:00 | Report abuse |
  27. Ellen

    Wow, how coincidental – The risks & benefits of neti pots is actually the topic of today's video-of-the-day over at NutritionFacts.org, one of my favorite science-based websites on nutrition and health (Dr. Greger records and schedules those videos weeks in advance, so it's very coincidental timing with this news story is pretty remarkable!)

    December 19, 2011 at 17:30 | Report abuse | Reply
  28. LouisianaStudent

    Naegleria fowleri is a nasty deadly amoeba but it is extremely rare. The DeSoto Parish case was probably from a well. I wouldn't worry about most municipal water supplies. Most cases come from ponds or lakes where someone has stirred up the bottom. But good luck if you contract this thing, almost all cases are diagnosed during autopsy.

    December 19, 2011 at 20:29 | Report abuse | Reply
  29. tjkp

    Anyone know where in LA? My husband and I relocated to Monroe
    LA in 2008 for 2 years. While there, we were appalled by the tap water – literally brown from time:time. We had a baby in 2009 and during the month following her birth, the water stench from the tap was so bad you could smell it on clothes after they'd been washed and pulled out clean from the dryer. There were never any warnings issued yet we knew something couldn't be right with water that smelled so terribly. Finally while dining out in an upscale restaurant in our neighborhood where we asked for water at the table, we were told that they had to serve us bottled water due to a health ban.
    In the two years I worked and lived there, I met no less than 15 women who grew up there and had reproductive issues and couldn't conceive children. I knew 4 people in their 30s who had their gall bladders removed while I lived there. And I knew 2 people in their 30s who had already suffered from some type of cancer. Finally, after deilvering (thankfully) a
    healthy baby, I found out our parish had the highest infant mortality rates in the country.
    My question is – is it really fair to blame improper neti pot usage for these 2 deaths? How about taking a closer look at the tap water that is allegedly "safe" to drink...and then look at the incidence rate of illnesses in the state relative to other states. And then, state of Louisiana, feel free to blame the deaths on improper neti pot usage.

    December 19, 2011 at 22:51 | Report abuse | Reply
  30. SixDegrees

    Louisiana is generally filthy. On a recent trip there, every restaurant and food store I visited had greasy dishes and glasses, and silverware with bits of food crusted on it. Dishes have numerous chips and cracks. And I don't even want to think what the kitchens were like. This includes "fine" restaurants in downtown New Orleans, as well as others scattered across the state. It doesn't surprise me that bizarre and rare diseases thrive there, in the municipal water supply and everywhere else.

    December 20, 2011 at 03:23 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Common Sense

      It is unfair to judge every part of Louisiana based upon your experiences in New Orleans. It is a tourist trap..many feet walk there. As for the area I live in..rural, clean and we take pride in our neighborhoods. I am originally from Tennessee, and I wouldn't move back there if you paid me.

      December 20, 2011 at 23:38 | Report abuse |
  31. Myto Senseworth

    When I travel I take my portable water purification system. Places like Louisiana are filthy.

    December 20, 2011 at 10:13 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Common Sense

      I live in Louisiana. I don't see how it is any filthier than anywhere else in the United States. I live in a nice CLEAN neighborhood, keep a CLEAN home, and I would suggest that everyone purify their tap water in some way, in every part of our country.

      December 20, 2011 at 23:34 | Report abuse |
  32. Charles

    Let me get this straight, if I stick tapwater up my nose then I might die from this Ameoba, umm has anyone told the people that take baths and showers about this????????? Jeez!!! The water is safe to drink but not to irrigate you nose?? Really?

    December 20, 2011 at 13:37 | Report abuse | Reply
  33. alex

    so... this was already discussed some months back but it was regarding an amoeba (may be the same name, don't remember) that made it's way to the brain via sinuses during swimming. was there not a region-wide notification that went out in some way/shape/form that would hit more people who don't read this site? people still try to beat train crossings so i guess it's about the same thing.

    December 20, 2011 at 14:44 | Report abuse | Reply
  34. alex

    on second thought, there's no reason to budget any tax money for this kind of stuff. the people who are infected by this are probably weak to begin with or they'd be rich, healthy and not need any insurance. why give the state enough money to target this problem that only effects other people? education-schmeducation.

    December 20, 2011 at 14:48 | Report abuse | Reply
  35. Common Sense

    While this is a huge tragedy, the instructions on these neti pots are very clear. You are asked to use bottled, sterilized, boiled or distilled water. It is heartbreaking that those people had to lose their lives just to get some relief from sinus trouble, but as with ANYTHING in our lives, you have to be your OWN advocate. That includes: reading labels, asking the right questions to health care providers and pharmacy professionals. We can all take a lesson in this instead of accusing people like Dr. Oz for the deaths. Using those methods is a personal choice.

    December 20, 2011 at 23:32 | Report abuse | Reply
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    December 21, 2011 at 05:57 | Report abuse | Reply
  37. Redcatlady

    I use a Neti pot with water from a PUR pitcher filter that is then heated for under one minute in the microwave. Is this enough to ward off amoebas? Or must I heat it longer?

    December 21, 2011 at 10:02 | Report abuse | Reply
  38. DK

    CDC says it is a rare infecion. well, it is apparent that it's not that rare. This is outrageous that the water we believe to be safe for use is harboring such a deadly parasite and govt agencies are not doing anything about it apart from saying it's a rare infection. Rare my ...... This people should come up with a cure for this deadly disease before more lives are taken. Tap water is safe for drinking but deadly for putting up in your nose? There is also a very good possibility that you can get this infection while showering. More research needs to be done to find a cure before people start dying from taking a shower.

    January 5, 2012 at 10:32 | Report abuse | Reply
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    March 8, 2012 at 12:43 | Report abuse | Reply
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  44. Chemo

    I like the joke about dihydrogen monoxide ( H2O ) this is chemspeak for water ! Yes you should be careful about what you spray up your nose ! Boiled water after a little cooling would be my choice ! Doesn't anyone consult their Doctor or pharmacist anymore ? Common sense doesn't seem to be so common these days . Happy rinsing !

    April 21, 2012 at 22:27 | Report abuse | Reply
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  46. vinod

    Good awareness for life secourity.

    August 6, 2012 at 06:44 | Report abuse | Reply
  47. Debbie

    oops.....that was supposed to be enemas not enemies lmao...

    October 20, 2012 at 23:58 | Report abuse | Reply
  48. Jude Woodby

    Also known as onychomycosis and tinea unguium, nail fungal infections are the most common diseases of the nails, making up about 50% of nail abnormalities. Both fingernails and toenails are susceptible to the infection, which usually manifests as discoloration and thickening of the nail and crumbling edges. The condition most commonly occurs in toenails. ^

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    March 22, 2013 at 23:45 | Report abuse | Reply
  49. Nolan Hopp

    Cooks use the terms "horseradish" or "prepared horseradish" to refer to the grated root of the horseradish plant mixed with vinegar. Prepared horseradish is white to creamy-beige in colour. It will keep for months refrigerated but eventually will darken, indicating it is losing flavour and should be replaced. The leaves of the plant, while edible, are not commonly eaten, and are referred to as "horseradish greens"."

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  50. Michael

    Do you wash your anus with the tap water after defecating??? If you cannot get infection without washing your anus, then what type of precautions are you taking??? You first learn what is hygiene and then only make guidelines

    May 29, 2013 at 21:48 | Report abuse | Reply
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Get a behind-the-scenes look at the latest stories from CNN Chief Medical Correspondent, Dr. Sanjay Gupta, Senior Medical Correspondent Elizabeth Cohen and the CNN Medical Unit producers. They'll share news and views on health and medical trends - info that will help you take better care of yourself and the people you love.