Monkeys move virtual arm with their minds
October 5th, 2011
01:00 PM ET

Monkeys move virtual arm with their minds

Remember the hit movie Avatar, where the human brain alone could control a lifelike hybrid body, seeing what it sees and feeling what it feels?

Scientists at Duke University are one step closer to making that concept a reality, with important applications for medicine. They have developed a system through which a monkey can control a virtual arm with its brain and also feel sensations from the appendage.

The ultimate goal is to build a robotic body suit controlled entirely by brain activity, which will provide tactile feedback to the wearer, says Dr. Miguel Nicolelis, study co-author and neuroscientist at Duke University. This could potentially enable quadriplegic individuals and people with locked-in syndrome to move, walk and feel textures with robotic hands and feet.

"In essence, we are going to provide a new body to these patients," Nicolelis said. "It’s almost like a whole-body vest, but the vest is going to carry the patient’s body."

The new study, published in the journal Nature, represents a milestone in brain-machine interfaces in that it demonstrates that it's possible for the brain to decode motor signals and also receive sensory feedback, said Sliman Bensmaia, assistant professor at the University of Chicago, who was not involved in this research.

The experiment involved implanting hairlike filaments that act as sensors into the brain, about 3 to 4 millimeters deep. In monkeys, these implants have been shown to work for seven years without any complications, suggesting they are safe to use in humans, Nicolelis said.

In this brain-machine-brain-interface, signals from the animal's brain were sent to the avatar arm, and then a feedback signal was sent back to the brain of the animal.

The monkeys saw the avatar arm and three targets that appeared visually identical, but had different associated textures that could be felt with the virtual hand. A signal sent to their brains indicated a texture, which the monkeys used to determine the corresponding target. Using only their minds, they directed the virtual arm to differentiate targets according to their texture. One monkey got the tasks right more than 85% of the time, the other more than 60%.

The monkeys did not touch these objects with their real skin, or move their actual bodies. Sounds like Avatar, although Nicolelis points out his group had with the idea first, publishing on preliminary research in Scientific American in 2002.

Nicolelis's team previously demonstrated this concept in 2008, when his group got a rhesus monkey in North Carolina to mentally control the walking patterns of a robot in Japan. Researchers implanted electrodes into the monkey's brain and, while the monkey walked on a treadmill, the electrodes recorded responses from the brain's sensory and motor cortex, and sensors on the monkey's leg tracked walking patterns.

All of this data helped predict how fast the monkey's legs moved and the stride length. Meanwhile, in Japan, a robot received that information and began moving in synch with the monkey in real time, even though it was thousands of miles away. Most astonishingly, the monkey continued transmitting these signals to make the robot walk for a few minutes after researchers turned off the treadmill.

The next challenge in this area of research is to come up with more sophisticated algorithms for sensory feedback, Bensmaia said in an e-mail. The patient must receive all of the information from a robotic arm in an intuitive fashion.

"Ideally, the sensations evoked by the neuroprostheses would resemble those evoked by the native limb. Otherwise, patients will receive a barrage of signals from the arm which may serve to confuse rather than assist them," Bensmaia said.

Nicolelis hopes to demonstrate a full-body robotic suit at the 2014 FIFA Soccer World Cup in his home country of Brazil, by having a quadriplegic child walk onto the field and give the kickoff. His team's research is part of the Walk Again Project, an international consortium of researchers looking to restore movement in people who can't move their limbs.

"In the next decade, with demonstrations like this and a few others that are coming in the next months, we are going to see the emergence of these new neuroprosthetic devices, controlled by thought alone," he said. "It's going to be a pretty major development in rehabilitation medicine."

soundoff (160 Responses)
  1. Robert

    Did it throw a pile of feces with the arm?

    October 5, 2011 at 14:43 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Dimi

      While the readers' ethical concerns are understood, the monkeys had no complications. Remember, if it weren't for tests involving animals there wouldn't be scientific progress and much of what we now take for granted, especially in medicine, would be simply nonexistent. Now imagine the potential of something like this if (rather, when) it takes off. This is a truly revolutionary technology. Dr Nicolelis and his colleagues are to be commended.

      October 6, 2011 at 04:09 | Report abuse |
    • Ttommy


      October 6, 2011 at 06:34 | Report abuse |
    • banana guy 138

      yall be trippin wit dis animal im bout ta go ape

      October 6, 2011 at 08:34 | Report abuse |
    • Moe Green


      October 6, 2011 at 10:07 | Report abuse |
    • bean bag

      Any more suggestions or hints? It's odd to see this from them. My bestie turned me onto your websites. I just took a minute from cleaning the kitchen to read your post. I'm super bored to death at work so I decided to check out your blog on my work computer during lunch break. Just how many people do you really think could possibly believe in that typeof thing?


      December 27, 2018 at 17:34 | Report abuse |
  2. Rosiepose

    Leave the monkeys alone. Do testing on yourselves..............scientists want to be gods.............."The awful wrongs and sufferings forced upon the innocent, helpless, faithful animal race, form the blackest chapter in the whole world's history." ~ Edward Freeman

    October 5, 2011 at 16:36 | Report abuse | Reply
    • arjun

      Do you eat meat? If so you dont have the right to talk.

      October 6, 2011 at 00:09 | Report abuse |
    • Onam

      Everyone has the right to talk. Unfortunately, not everyone has something "thought out" to say.

      October 6, 2011 at 01:59 | Report abuse |
    • Marcus

      PETA – People Eating Tasty Animals.

      October 6, 2011 at 07:07 | Report abuse |
    • MadScientist

      I understand where you're coming , but until it is considered acceptable to use humans for cutting edge research, science will continue to use animals. As for god complex, the more intelligent that one becomes the more they have a tendency to strive for this.

      As for the other crass remarks, people have to understand that there will be more and more uneducated and juvenile remarks especially since there is no IQ test to give birth or raise children.

      Many animals enjoy challenges....and those those that post on forums and blogs(like this one are no exception!). Primates are generally treated very well, and I hope that these are no exception.

      October 6, 2011 at 09:28 | Report abuse |
    • Bort

      I don't think having a monkey think about moving a virtual arm qualifies as bothering him. Think of the alternative, he could be at home smoking cigarettes, watching reruns of Jersey Shore. NOW THAT'S something to fling virtual poo at!

      October 6, 2011 at 10:51 | Report abuse |
    • HenkV

      Thank you for volunteering. Because you need to volunteer in case in the future you need a medical procedure for yourself. Only by testing and experimenting can doctors know if it works. If you DON'T volunteer you have no right whatsoever from now on to use any kind of medical procedure.

      October 6, 2011 at 11:01 | Report abuse |
    • Smexy

      If we don't kill the monkey's then something like Planet of the Apes may happen. Keep doing experiments with them so we will know how to defeat them, 😉

      October 6, 2011 at 11:10 | Report abuse |
    • Jesse Grillo

      There sure must be some type of really addictive quality about this article because I can't stay away for more than a day without reading it. Your website really keeps me really well informed on the latest news happening in my area and around the country. This will be useful to anyone who reads it, including me. Well I will never be the same after seeing your work! The human brain is does not make us happy, as much as you might wish it were so.


      December 30, 2018 at 16:31 | Report abuse |
  3. Diane Poulos

    Ok- How would you like us to experiment then? or would you rather just not evolve as a race? or maybe, we can test on you? are you volunteering? I see nothing wrong with clincal science and I think you should take a look into what you are asking for when you say it should not be done.

    October 5, 2011 at 16:51 | Report abuse | Reply
  4. Redneck Genius

    leave the animals alone, test on yourself...

    October 5, 2011 at 17:32 | Report abuse | Reply
    • SilentBoy741

      Now you sound like my parents when I went through puberty.

      October 6, 2011 at 01:15 | Report abuse |
  5. Forget The Animals


    October 5, 2011 at 18:11 | Report abuse | Reply
    • sbp

      That's an insult to the monkeys.

      October 6, 2011 at 10:14 | Report abuse |
  6. Your own child...

    I wonder how much you'd be against animal testing if such treatments were crucial to the betterment of your own child's life. But then again, you might live with 5 cats...

    October 5, 2011 at 18:39 | Report abuse | Reply
    • LithiumZero

      It would make no difference. Wrong doing is wrong doing no matter what scenario you try to apply to it.

      October 6, 2011 at 07:45 | Report abuse |
    • Marketing Consultant

      Old school Google professionals would really love your blogs. You really have an amazing way of thinking about things. You have really smacked the nail on the head. Lending a helping hand in that effort is a great way to make a real difference in the workplace. But I sometimes miss the old days.


      December 18, 2018 at 12:41 | Report abuse |
  7. Marcos Müzel Kalomenconkovas

    Por favor, sr. MIGUEL NICOLELIS, acabei de assistir uma reportagem do senhor na TV, quando comenta de uma criança utilizando a invenção dos senhores na abertura da COPA DO MUNDO de 2014. Quero dizer que tenho um filho de 3 anos, VÍCTOR HUGO, que não tem o braço direito, no qual gostaria muito que o senhor desse esta oportunidade a ele. Posso lhe enviar fotos dele.
    Aguardo um retorno.
    Marcos Müzel Kalomenconkovas
    (92) 8242-3646

    October 5, 2011 at 20:23 | Report abuse | Reply
    • SilentBoy741

      Yo quiero Taco Bell.

      October 6, 2011 at 01:17 | Report abuse |
    • @silentboy

      That's Portuguese, not Spanish (but you've really impressed me with your total and unmitigated ignorance- if you're going to do something, like be an idiot, at least you go all the way). E obrigada Marcos por dizer umas cosias inteligentes, Deus Ihe bendiga!

      October 6, 2011 at 10:07 | Report abuse |
    • Smexy


      October 6, 2011 at 11:15 | Report abuse |
  8. billy

    Yes, monkeys being useful!! We should do this to Pandas, those are the most useless animals of all.

    October 5, 2011 at 21:34 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Guest

      The most useless animal of all is man

      October 6, 2011 at 07:01 | Report abuse |
    • Smexy

      @Guest: Thanks I needed a laugh ... the zany left (and right) are always good for one.

      October 6, 2011 at 11:16 | Report abuse |
  9. Q.E.D.

    Been there/done that:


    October 5, 2011 at 23:24 | Report abuse | Reply
  10. Michael Hunt

    You want to blow up a facility full of monkeys!?!? Blowing them up would be WORSE than testing harmless computer devices on them!!!!!

    October 5, 2011 at 23:32 | Report abuse | Reply
  11. Jeepers

    You know how your grandparents had all these stories about how hard life was when they were a kid? I wonder if I'll tell my grandkids about how hard it was for us when we couldn't change the tv with our minds.

    October 5, 2011 at 23:44 | Report abuse | Reply
    • huxley

      I suspect one modern fixture has a limited life, the keyboard. It's so inefficient. There must be faster and better ways to input information that havent been discovered yet, whether its brain activity patterns or other biofeedback.

      October 6, 2011 at 01:05 | Report abuse |
  12. cappoman

    Uh-Oh, you've just landed yourself on the FBI watch list. Stupid.

    October 6, 2011 at 00:47 | Report abuse | Reply
  13. j

    I had chicken tonight at Chiles.....love eating the animal!

    October 6, 2011 at 01:08 | Report abuse | Reply
  14. GoneApe

    They never revealed the name of the monkey, but insider info was startling..
    The monkey's name was Semos

    October 6, 2011 at 01:08 | Report abuse | Reply
  15. SilentBoy741

    Personally, I don't think science wants to know the results of pairing a child molester with a virtual hand.

    October 6, 2011 at 01:13 | Report abuse | Reply
    • wasso

      Especially, when its giving you the bird all the time !

      October 6, 2011 at 03:16 | Report abuse |
    • Trololol

      i wish you hadnt put that thought into my head...

      October 6, 2011 at 17:24 | Report abuse |
    • Trololol

      Silent boy^

      October 6, 2011 at 17:25 | Report abuse |
  16. SilentBoy741

    Who is the "correct target" graphic there to benefit? The monkey? I mean seriously, how long did it take them to teach that monkey to read that?

    October 6, 2011 at 01:21 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Smexy

      You are the correct target.

      October 6, 2011 at 11:18 | Report abuse |
    • Bean Bag

      I have added your page to my Pinterest bookmarks. What was typed there was very logical. Amazing arguments. I do not fully understand what you are saying. Spot on with this write up. I really wish you would be my friend.


      December 30, 2018 at 10:40 | Report abuse |
  17. Muhammad

    Atheists want to believe that humans came from monkeys. If monkeys are smart, then spiders are geniuses!! Spiders had to think of a way to catch flying bugs, then they came up with a net, then had to think how to make the chemical compounds that are light weight but stronger than steel. In their secret labs they came up with the spider web material, and then they came up with a perfect and most efficient design. So did we come from spiders? On smarts scale, spiders are closer aren’t they??? If you say its instinct I would say where did it come from? It had to come from an intelligent being because its way to complicated for a bug!

    October 6, 2011 at 01:40 | Report abuse | Reply
    • SiTek

      The question how and from where humans evolved is not a question of believe but a question of scientific research, believe what you want to believe and stay dumb... or be smart, learn something and look at the facts and try to understand them. And when you look into the genetic code of apes and humans you will find clear evidence that humans and apes share a very long path of evolution.

      October 6, 2011 at 04:12 | Report abuse |
    • TTommy

      It must be very comforting to go through life ignorant, dumb, and so full of faith you ignore the obvious.

      October 6, 2011 at 06:29 | Report abuse |
    • Ttommy

      It must be very comforting going through life ignorant, dumb, and without the ability to question or accept the obvious.

      October 6, 2011 at 06:33 | Report abuse |
    • kojo

      Yes Muhammad, it is very complicated , isn't it. Think real hard. Where did you come from ? Can you get back there? If you left now, how long would it take? These are all question I have.

      October 6, 2011 at 07:31 | Report abuse |
    • Science Man

      SiTek- Perhaps you need to consider the facts. We actually have a closer DNA to Rats than monkeys. We even share some DNA with a banana. All living things have dna so it is bound to be similiar.This does not mean that one came from the other. All books contain words, some are very similiar, but one did not come from another, but had an intelligent mind to arrange them. It is interesting how many condemn one for having the belief that there is intelligence behind this all. And yet they still can't explain how a spider makes a web, or how a flower has a pattern on its pedals that resembles the bee it needs for reproduction.

      October 6, 2011 at 09:07 | Report abuse |
    • Hanz Jager

      "Atheists want to believe that humans came from monkeys." No... we don't. Humans and monkeys evolved from a common ancestor. At least get it right for a change!!

      October 6, 2011 at 09:58 | Report abuse |
    • Correction

      The fact that you think a spider (or any being) can just "think" of a chemical composition and voila!!! It's made!!! Shows that you are not capable of understanding the theory of evolution, not to mention the fact that atheism and the theory of evolution are not one in the same.

      October 6, 2011 at 10:47 | Report abuse |
    • Smexy

      @Science Man: You could not be more wrong. Human and chimp DNA is around 92% – 98% identical depending on how you look at the data. Part of the great ape family. You are spouting "creatard" non-sense. Your post is the reason why people like you are criticized ... because you LIE and deceive about scientific evidence.

      October 6, 2011 at 11:30 | Report abuse |
    • Science Man

      Do the research. I stand by my comment. We and mice are very close DNA wise. 99% actually.
      Smexy, I stand by my statement.

      October 6, 2011 at 16:59 | Report abuse |
    • Science Man

      According to this Chimps and Humans share 96%.
      Bananas 50-60%
      So, looking at the facts, I don't think its nonsense... unless it is unscientific to look at facts. Look at thefacts and make your own decisions, why bash somebody for acknowledging factual information that states that we do have alot in common with other living things DNA wise, to be so narrow minded so as not to consider all possiblities is senseless.
      I have been involved in the biology and breeding of fish for decades and what I have found in my research leads me to believe that blind evolution takes more faith than believing in an intelligent designer is all. O do not force others into such a belief nor like to argue. I do promote education. To believe everything we read as 'fact' can be decieving. But to look into things first hand you truly see for yourself. I have seen to much in the fish world alone that evolution simply can not provide an answer to. My personal observations. It makes me wonder when others bash us for such observation based on facts, as if we have blind faith. True faith is based on evidence, and that is what mine is supported on. I can provide such evidence, but don't want to argue.

      October 6, 2011 at 17:09 | Report abuse |
    • Science Man

      Please note the Banana point is not contained in the National Geographic article. That was just a random statistic.

      October 6, 2011 at 17:11 | Report abuse |
    • Trololol

      Hey guys, i think everyone has valid arguments but i think we should look back at the big picture; Muhammad is just flat out stupid... No offense.... Well, maybe a little 😉

      October 6, 2011 at 17:16 | Report abuse |
  18. SciFiFan

    In addition to medicine, this also implies military applications, cf. Heinlein's "Starship Troopers."

    October 6, 2011 at 02:45 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Benny

      That was the first thing I thought of. Think of what this tech could do with a battle suit similar to "Iron Man" or from the video games like "MechWarrior"! It could COMPLETELY take the "loss of life" out of military combat! Wars fought by remote bots instead of solders.

      Scarry to come to think of it... Between the new iPhones "personal assistant" and the progress of brain controlled tech which leads to body suits/armor... Skynet?

      October 6, 2011 at 07:07 | Report abuse |
  19. Autumn

    Sure animal testing is cruel but when it comes to the field of medicine I get a bit selfish. As for a way for quadraplegics to walk again Christopher Reeves would be proud!

    October 6, 2011 at 03:05 | Report abuse | Reply
  20. askmehow

    That's monkey business.

    October 6, 2011 at 04:34 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Marketing Consultant

      I just wanted to say thanks for this great post! I am shocked by this and I can not help but to think about how this could affect the future. I worked in this topic in school. Aw, I miss North Dakota. I think the admin of this blog is really working a lot. Does your blog have a contact page? I’m having a tough time locating it but, I would love to send you an e-mail. You've really changed my way of thinking about things on more than a few topics today.


      December 19, 2018 at 06:01 | Report abuse |
  21. James Hotz

    Maybe the monkeys could run Apple.

    October 6, 2011 at 06:07 | Report abuse | Reply
  22. greencook

    So, they are experimenting (torturing) on fellow primates?

    October 6, 2011 at 06:27 | Report abuse | Reply
  23. katie

    Perhaps if people lined up to be test subjects for medical research monkeys wouldn't have to be used. BUT, I've not seen any people offering, soooooo.

    If you're against medical research and the use of non human primates: DENY ALL MEDICAL CARE!!!! Yup, it's that simple.

    October 6, 2011 at 06:39 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Dog Cbd

      What could we be not seeing? Your insights are really well made and thought up. Hope the issue is resolved soon. I seriously discovered something here today.


      December 17, 2018 at 17:19 | Report abuse |
  24. Dr Bill Toth

    Awesome! New meaning to the phrase – "It's so simple a monkey could do it". Live With Intention, DrBillTothCom/blog

    October 6, 2011 at 06:50 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Cbd Cream

      Your site looks just like my old website. Are there different articles you work for? This website is awesome! This is a highly descriptive and well written article.


      December 17, 2018 at 09:20 | Report abuse |
  25. Guest

    We are all ignoring the big picture


    October 6, 2011 at 07:03 | Report abuse | Reply
  26. tess

    Getting past the testing issue, isn't it further proof that these animals can and do think and feel in similar ways to humans if they understand the connection between thoughts and actions and can make intelligent choices? Not good news for those who think we are somehow special. Any day now they will prove that other animals worship a higher something...

    October 6, 2011 at 07:18 | Report abuse | Reply
  27. Jason Canty

    This is sooo cool. ITs like Every sci-fi movie or comic,cartoon since the 50's. And oh man think of the Military uses, its like Exo Squad.

    October 6, 2011 at 07:31 | Report abuse | Reply
  28. mecatfish

    Animal rights people....Dont drive your car, do you know how many bugs you killed on your way in? Dont walk either, every step kills ants and nematodes. How about your immune system? It kills bacteria and viruses by the millions.

    October 6, 2011 at 07:49 | Report abuse | Reply
    • mike

      Hey they don't care because those creatures are cute and furry...

      October 6, 2011 at 10:40 | Report abuse |
    • mike


      October 6, 2011 at 10:40 | Report abuse |
  29. George

    Oh I thought this article was about Sarah Palin.

    October 6, 2011 at 08:40 | Report abuse | Reply
  30. celticgoddess

    I love to see all these wonderful innovations. but I have to sit back and ask myself, will the very people this is supposed to help actually be able to afford it? Sadly I look around myself at people I see in my own world at the grocery or at the clinic and I know that the answer is NO. They talk about the rising costs of health insurance and the people who work and have to pay more of the share of that premium are the ones who need these innovations but will not be able to afford them if the health care industry stays as it is. This could actually mean getting back to work for those who are disabled because of spinal injuries and yet how are they going to benefit if they can't find a way to afford it? Just imagine 10 or 20 years down the road when these may become available to the public and ask yourself if you really think the health care crisis is going to be any different than it is now. Look back 10 years and see if it has gotten any better.

    October 6, 2011 at 09:01 | Report abuse | Reply
  31. Henrique

    Miguel Nicolelis is a brazilian scientist. At least, this time CNN didn´t say that "Brazilians look like monkeys", living in extreme poverty into a wild and bizarre jungle.

    October 6, 2011 at 09:06 | Report abuse | Reply
    • profbam

      The first author is Joseph O'Doherty, J H Rose High School '97 in Greenville, NC. I watched Joey grow up. Cool to see him as first author on a paper in Nature. He was big into computers and bioengineering by the time he graduated high school.

      October 6, 2011 at 10:49 | Report abuse |
  32. Richard

    Isn't this old news? I remember watching videos about his years ago on YouTube.

    October 6, 2011 at 09:14 | Report abuse | Reply
    • mike

      most of the news on scientific research coming out now was actually done years ago. As the papers become public or the general public actually hears about it.

      October 6, 2011 at 10:37 | Report abuse |
  33. james darnley

    science will be the death of all of us one day.see what happens when you mess with a species that was not born to be messed with.can you say armeggedon

    October 6, 2011 at 09:18 | Report abuse | Reply
  34. beefooy


    October 6, 2011 at 09:43 | Report abuse | Reply
  35. shoeboy

    wonder how much stimulus money was spent for monkeys to move articulating robot arms?

    October 6, 2011 at 09:44 | Report abuse | Reply
  36. Badly-Bent

    Great Soon we'll have jobs that monkeys won't do!

    October 6, 2011 at 10:00 | Report abuse | Reply
  37. erich2112x

    My pet chicken is typing this out right now with it's beak I just dictate.

    October 6, 2011 at 10:00 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Badly-Bent

      His name wouldn't happen to be Gregory would it?

      October 6, 2011 at 10:43 | Report abuse |
  38. Johnny 5

    We are the top primate using the chimp which are a step below us in the primate family for the testing of new scientific developments. Using the closest species to your own is the greatest path to success. We ourselves appear to be a product of the same experiments in the distant past by a race closest to our own as we know it.

    October 6, 2011 at 10:06 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Kevin O.

      We could always use the Jews and Gays again. That would stop all these PETA bishes from clammering.

      October 6, 2011 at 10:13 | Report abuse |
  39. Kevin O.

    Hmmm....that's interesting. Yet I find myself not impressed. Can the monkey do more than just move the arm? Now that the monkey can move the virtual arm, can we attach these devices to epileptics to see what is happening in the subconcious during a seizure? This is boring, your news is boring.

    October 6, 2011 at 10:11 | Report abuse | Reply
  40. Jean Paul

    Perform tests on tea party members.

    October 6, 2011 at 10:17 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Badly-Bent

      They are not good candidates because they do not represent the norm.

      October 6, 2011 at 10:44 | Report abuse |
    • Trololol

      Because that would violate human rights at all...

      October 6, 2011 at 17:23 | Report abuse |
  41. mike

    By the way, without animal use in research we would have almost none of the medical technology we have today. That medicine you rely on...not possible without experimental research on mice and rodents. Also if you are against using animals for research then don't use any medicine because I could smell your hypocracy from here.

    October 6, 2011 at 10:33 | Report abuse | Reply
  42. Moe Green

    Beck: I hate this place. I hate penis-eating minnows and I hate freaky fruit. I want to go home. I want concrete. I want homemade tortellini. I want my Los Angeles Lakers. I want to go home, I want to go home, I want to go home!

    Beck: Get out of here, monkeys! Get out of here, monkeys!

    October 6, 2011 at 10:47 | Report abuse | Reply
  43. Badly-Bent

    Wake me when they get a monkey that can play Jeopardy!

    October 6, 2011 at 10:48 | Report abuse | Reply
  44. Jonathan

    This is a great step and with some hope for autistic individuals.

    October 6, 2011 at 10:53 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Natural Cbd

      I only got about a few sentences through this blog post but I'll take a look at the rest of the write up when I get home from work. The journey discovers many obstacles and during that time, the world view could transform. Great communication usually begins with intentional preparation. Honestly, how much of a change, if any, might this new event have on the current state of affairs we are seeing right now? The information you are providing is great.


      December 31, 2018 at 11:18 | Report abuse |
  45. HardLogic

    For all of you animal rights activists here, the reason scientist use animals for research is because it's against the law to use humans. Don't you think scientists would rather use humans , so they can get more accurate results of progress? The Gov't should allow scientific research testing on paid/volunteer human subjects. If there is a shortage of volunteers for testing, then take them from the prisons. Hey, they did the crime and put themselves in the situation. Another incentive to stay out of jail.

    October 6, 2011 at 13:27 | Report abuse | Reply
  46. Vinko Rajic

    Telepathy – I think this is important for science

    My name is Vinko Rajic , I can use telepathy , I am maybe the only person that can use telepathy all the time , send
    and receive voice and video on distance of few kilometer. It works all the time and 100% correct.

    I think it is important for science and human kind to make research on my brain and find out how this works.
    My telepathy manifest itself exact like "Schneider's first-rank symptoms".
    Please send email to other scientists that could know about that.
    I think it would be extremely important to find out what kind of waves transmit my thoughts.

    October 6, 2011 at 14:03 | Report abuse | Reply
  47. FridayGal

    Remember the movie Avatar, which supposedly taught us to not violently exploit others for our own selfish purposes? Clearly Duke University needs a lesson in bioethics.

    October 6, 2011 at 16:14 | Report abuse | Reply
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Get a behind-the-scenes look at the latest stories from CNN Chief Medical Correspondent, Dr. Sanjay Gupta, Senior Medical Correspondent Elizabeth Cohen and the CNN Medical Unit producers. They'll share news and views on health and medical trends - info that will help you take better care of yourself and the people you love.