July 26th, 2010
06:48 PM ET

Childhood abuse linked to adult heart disease

Adults who were physically abused during childhood are more likely later to develop heart disease.  In fact, abused children have 45 percent higher odds of heart problems later in life compared with children who are not abused, according to new research published in the journal Child Abuse & Neglect.

"If you take two people who are identical to one another, same sex, same age, same background, and the only thing different between them is that one reports being physically abused as a child, the one who was abused has a greater odds of reporting also having heart disease," said Esme Fuller-Thomson, an associate professor of Social Work at the University of Toronto.

The study sample included 13,093 adults who were part of the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey.  The study respondents were asked whether when they were a child or adolescent, they were physically abused by someone close to them.  They were subsequently asked whether they had received a heart disease diagnosis from a health professional.

Even when researchers ruled out other possible risk factors for heart disease such as being obese or physically inactive, smoking, alcohol abuse - and other potential heart stressors like depression, parental fights, or poverty - the odds of having heart disease was still markedly higher for adults who had come from abusive homes.

"What this study suggests is that potentially those early childhood abuses are internalized and manifest in health problems later," said Fuller-Thomson, the lead study author.  Fuller-Thomson and colleagues previously found associations between childhood physical abuse and later diagnoses of cancer, osteoarthritis and migraines.

The mechanism behind the heart disease is not well-studied, but there are some interesting theories.  One may have to do with something called "biological embedding," according to the study.  Biological embedding suggests that children who experience inordinate stress during childhood later experience a dysfunctional response to any hint of future stress - whether the situation merits it or not.  Think about it as a sort of hypervigilance - an overactive fight or flight response - that never lets up.

"If a kid is bracing for a possibility like 'My father is going to beat me,' he or she might overreact to other stressors later in life," said Fuller-Thomson.  "They needed to develop that protective mechanism back then, but it may not let up."

That hyperactive response to stress may, in turn, stress the heart.

Fuller-Thomson is quick to say that the research is far from concluding that physical abuse could cause heart disease.  That would be an oversimplification.  Rather, future studies may rate it among several risk factors for heart disease, including obesity, smoking and physical inactivity.

And to the seemingly impossible idea of a solution, a way to potentially circumvent later heart disease risk that could be explained by physical abuse?  Fuller-Thomson believes that while the science is sorted out, every physically abused child deserves a mental health intervention.

"Why aren't we giving that to every kid whose been abused," said Fuller-Thomson. "It doesn't make sense to me."

soundoff (51 Responses)
  1. Linn

    Has anybody done a study of childhood abuse and obesity?

    July 26, 2010 at 21:29 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Maryanne Leonard

      I don't know of a research study specifically asking your question. However, I can report that I was severely abused as a child, to the point that I did not expect to live to adulthood, and I am obese. Several years ago I attended a presentation at an Overeaters Anonymous convention in which that question was asked. By the raising of hands in an auditorium of an estimated 500-600 people, nearly 80% reported childhood physical abuse, and over 60% responded that they had been sexually abused as children. I noted that the most severely obese were the people whose hands were raised.

      July 26, 2010 at 23:04 | Report abuse |
    • Thisguyoverhere

      People study everything, But to whom does one listen. Abused kids wouldn't have the best access to nutrition. Bad nutrition at any developmental point in your life effects how long you live, even if you get into shape later in life. I made that up, but someone would buy it if i created a link to an article of at least 5-7 paragraphs.

      July 27, 2010 at 03:53 | Report abuse |
    • Doctor Know

      Actually, you have inadvertently brought up a point with some proven merit to it, which goes to show that good things can come from dubious sources...

      July 27, 2010 at 10:09 | Report abuse |
    • silverside

      Yes, there are many studies linking abuse, particularly child sexual abuse, and obesity.

      July 27, 2010 at 11:18 | Report abuse |
  2. vic

    I suffered both familial abuse as well as stranger abduction and rape as a child. I have severe heart disease now in my 50's and told that my arteries are as old as a 75 year old man. I know stress caused this as I have led a life of fear due to what happened to me earlier in life. And yes all my life I have had the heightened fright, fight and flight syndrome and are easily scared. I also suffer PTSD due to the abuse. Is it possible that if I take Tai Chi or Yoga or other mind and body calming practice that I can hopefully help heal my heart since finally I have found peace?

    July 27, 2010 at 00:11 | Report abuse | Reply
    • natalie

      I had a similar experience to you. My stepfather abused me as a child. I have PTSD and frontal lobe epilepsy due to a TBI my stepfather inflicted on me. I have found that doing cardio exercise as well as yoga has helped greatly. It has helped relieved a great deal of stress. For cardio I do tae kwon do. I would suggest boxing or some type of martial arts. A good instructor will work with you. Please do your research before joining any gym or dojang. I hope this helps you. I wish you the best.

      July 27, 2010 at 14:33 | Report abuse |
    • anna

      Dear Vic, my heart goes out to you, I was thinking that maybe a dog would help you a lot, I have one and unconditional love he gives me heals many wounds, God bless you.

      July 27, 2010 at 15:48 | Report abuse |
  3. Maryanne Leonard

    Vic, I was sorry to read about your traumatic childhood combined with stranger abduction and rape as a child, as well as your present severe heart disease. Yes, I believe that all kinds of caring for yourself, including yoga, meditation, massage therapy, eating well, taking heart-healthy supplements, and even long, solitary walks would be helpful in keeping yourself alive and with us. I've also found that Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACA), modeled after the 12 Steps of AA, to be tremendously helpful to adults from dysfunctional families of all types, not just to adults who grew up in alcoholic homes. It sounds as if you may already have sought therapy, which is often very helpful too, although it usually takes years to rid oneself of most of the lingering effects of severely traumatic events, especially when coupled with childhood abuse. It is amazing what this level of trauma does to a person, even decades later, and it is helpful to seek healing through a variety of means, including spiritual, mental, emotional, physical, and even intellectual approaches. Yoga and other healing practices can be a wonderful adjunct to traditional therapies of all kinds. As a fellow traveler of a similarly difficult road, I want you to know that my heart goes out to you. I assure you working on personal recovery is a wonderfully gratifying experience, even though we never fully "arrive" at the point at which we can claim to be "fully recovered." Still, we learn so much that it is almost a gift to have to undertake such a journey of discovery and recovery. Godspeed to you as you continue on your own journey to wholeness.

    July 27, 2010 at 01:45 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Thanks

      Thank you for your comment to Vic. You didnt know it but you were speaking to me as well.

      July 27, 2010 at 03:59 | Report abuse |
    • Sanjosemike

      My heart goes out to you. Really. But it may be time to finally refuse to allow your abusers power over you. They may even be dead now. Give this a try: Become a vegan vegetarian. It's a good way to keep your weight down permanently. Most vegans weight about 10-12 lbs lighter than non-vegans. It may sound like a small difference, but it is statistically significant.

      Combine that with daily walking (about 2 miles/day). With every step you take, you say to yourself. "My abuser no longer has power over me." Keep on saying it in your mind. sanjosemike

      July 27, 2010 at 10:04 | Report abuse |
  4. Jonathan B

    I was abused by a conflicted father...who belt whipped me severely at times...for his own relief of anger. My sister, his first born, got next to NO "discipline"...in fact, when she would act up...I'd get the whipping.

    I was afraid of my dad from the cradle and I despised his heavy handed authoritarian style of "parenting".

    I have manifestations of moderate heart disease and I am 50 years old. I am also obese and I have discovered a Pituitary tumor, in recent years, that causes a lot of depression and fatigue. Stuidies have linked Pituitary cancers back to childhood stressors that had no resolution to them...that kept a child in a state of unfocused anxiety for many years. This is the underpinning of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    I've discovered, and have yet to experience, Deep Feeling Therapy or Primal Therapy by Robert Firestone and Arthur Janov respectively. These seem to be the most logical means to express pent up fear and anger and to relieve body bound emotional trauma.

    EMDR also appears to hold some promise of stripping away the emotional component of our past trauma.

    Our patterns are all similar...there has to be a tie to abuse.

    July 27, 2010 at 02:15 | Report abuse | Reply
  5. Lori

    I am 48 years old woman and now have a host of heart problems, high blood pressure, high cholseterol, microvascular disease and a few other issues. I would agree with all of you. My father was abusive, but we left him when I was 2, I was not hit, later in life, I was raped, and later abducted and molested while hitchhiking home from a friends at 15 in 1977. The impact, the PTSD, the hypervigilince, all there. I am not obese, but I struggle with weight issues a bit. I am overweight by about 35-40 lbs. I know part of it is not wanting to be objectified. I am gentle with myself and GOD is good to me, but the pain and altered thoughts and fears are things I do suffer from, and always will to a point. When I am closer to GOD and feel safer, then I am healthier for sure. I get triggered a bit and worry alot and work hard to protect my beautiful 21 year old daughter, I worry for her safety constantly and that is tough and safety concerns can make me frightened much. Men and especially young men today are a frightening bunch of soul-less shells more often than not, and the world in general is even less safe then it was 33 years ago. Faith and listening helps me stay calmer. But I have no doubt my PTSD and my past have crippled my body, that is what they call mind- body connection and body memories. I work on my PTSD constantly it's a lifetime process. But now I can feel joy and see good things....Amen. I have also learned to set better boundaries and to keep dysfunctional people away from me to stay healthier as well. Godbless to you all!

    July 27, 2010 at 02:36 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Sanjosemike

      It is time for you to forgive yourself for your bad judgment in hitchhiking. You survived the episode, and were fortunate to have done so.

      Not all young men are souless shells of humans. Although I am not gay myself, you could cultivate some (obviously platonic) friendships among gay men. Just try to avoid being attracted to any of them. Gay males may help you toward recognizing that all men are not evil.

      Please try to understand that men and women are different. (Straight) men objectify women because that is programmed in them by nature. But men can become "socialized." Even young men.


      July 27, 2010 at 10:24 | Report abuse |
  6. charls

    This sounds reasonable to me. Being abused put a lot of stress upon a child. The body make the stress hormone adrenaline which is known to increase blood pressure. High blood pressure is one of the precursors to heart disease. A child's body learns to respond with increased stress for even ordinary conditions. Sad but true.

    July 27, 2010 at 06:52 | Report abuse | Reply
  7. Waterfalls

    Thank you to everyone sharing their stories here. What you experience in childhood does stay with you for life. I do think it's (often) possible to heal, and the path is different for everyone, but if the pain stays with you at times, through your adulthood, this is not your fault.

    Has anyone here tried biofeedback therapy? What was your experience with it?

    July 27, 2010 at 07:19 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Sanjosemike

      I see nothing wrong with trying biofeedback treatment if you can afford it. But you must first STOP and CEASE any contacts with your abusers...permanently. sanjosemike

      July 27, 2010 at 10:17 | Report abuse |
  8. Rozz

    I was adopted at 3 months old. I was awarded to parents who lied and covered up their issues, which were not recognized until I was already an adult child of abusers. I was beaten, humiliated, broken, blamed for all the anger they held. At 55 I am still dealing with the psychological results of their tirade. My shrink and my 12 step program are the only thing I have given myself that have worked to help me process what was done to me. My adopted mother, now 93, still tries to play her game – nothing I do is ever good enough and my presence on earth is to be at her beck and call until she is dead. I encourage everyone to have the courage to face the abuse head on and work the 12 steps. It shows me how to love me, find me, and nurture me...............finally.

    July 27, 2010 at 09:19 | Report abuse | Reply
  9. Doctor Know

    The good thing about this is that those very parents and caregivers who were abusive to their charges during childhood will most likely face an onerous, pitiful, helpless existence during old age, precisely the time when it is critical to reap the love and good example that has been sown in the past. This trend will exacerbate as the American family becomes ever less nuclear and young people are forced to displace in ever larger quantities in order to find employment; those who have strong bonds with parents or childhood caregivers will take them along and protect them, those who just have bad memories will not. Ain't payback a b*tch.

    July 27, 2010 at 09:57 | Report abuse | Reply
  10. Doctor Know

    Why are you always wiping out all my posts? I post nothing immoral nor do I target anyone.

    July 27, 2010 at 10:02 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Doctor Know

      Correction, I recant. Thank you.

      July 27, 2010 at 10:03 | Report abuse |
  11. Sanjosemike


    Most of you who have been abused are now adults. (Unfortunately) some of you still have contact with your abusive parent(s).

    I think this just places you back into their power, and re-activates your PTSD. There are ways to fight against this. YOU are no longer under their power.

    You can express that by refusing any contact with them and getting counseling. You are now an adult and have a right not to be abused...anymore.

    Then....become a vegan vegetarian. Learn the recipes. You will get your weight and heart disease improved markedly. (No, I am not an animal rights activist).

    Start walking 2 miles/day, every day. Look into the mirror every morning and say to yourself (out loud), "I will no longer be abused." It's also helpful to put an empty chair in the corner of the room and pretend your abuser is there, and tell them what they did to you is NOT OK.

    NEVER return your abuser's telephone calls or contact requests. Disown them financially if you have any connection with them. Develop new friends and loved ones among strangers. Volunteer.

    Complete and permanent separation from your abuser is the first step toward healing.


    July 27, 2010 at 10:15 | Report abuse | Reply
  12. Lori

    I want to be clear Sanjosemike, I have long since forgiven myself, in 1977 everyone hitchhiked. I know this. As for men. I know not all men all shell-less souls. I have a man in my life I am in love with and we are working on trust issues. he is a wonderful, kind soul. But trust issues are an issue. My daughter too has a fine young man, and he is good and kind and they are working through their issues. I have a few male friends I love, but I know there are far to many men who rape and kill. Men who cannot control their hormones, men who are angry, socially inept, or just don't care how it feels to be a woman. One in four women in America are raped sometime in their life, one in three sexually abused. Those are just facts, unfortunately, just real facts. So trust and caution are necessary. One in ten men are sexual abusers, one in twenty are pedophiles. One in ten or two out of ten depending on statistics are verbal and physical abusers. So caution is a given.

    Also have no fear. I have said an absolute no to contact with anyone who has or does abuse.
    Safety always comes first. I can see good now, but I am very very aware there is bad...

    July 27, 2010 at 12:28 | Report abuse | Reply
  13. Lori

    By the way in Connecticut, where I live, a young man 19 just raped and killed his friend in Waterbury, she was 16, he had told her he way gay, that's why she trusted him to be alone with him. It was in the national news, at an old religious tourist site. So just goes to show you trust no-one. Trust is earned and takes time, and as with Mel Gibson.... it is never for certain and never permanent. Unfortunately, a good man can snap and become a different sort of man, and for that every woman should take caution always...it is unfortunate.

    July 27, 2010 at 12:46 | Report abuse | Reply
  14. Chevy

    Years ago, I was in a verbally and emotionally abusive relationship and I feel it took a tole on me. I'm 42, active and health concious but I felt the old trauma when I listened to the Mel Gibson rants broadcasted. And there were tears flowing while my partner was not in the room. You could replace Mel Gibson's voice with that one the one who verbally abused me years ago. If Gibson's rants were anything like my former lover's rants, they may have gone for hours and been a near daily occurance. I'm a guy and my abuser was a woman who was smaller than me. I held on because I hoped the good times might return, instead only 'insanity' like Gibson's rants continued. I'm in a great loving relationship with a sweet woman who I married now. But the trauma and tears from my old abuse temporarily came to the forefront of my mind when Gibson's rants became public. Prolonged abuse does things to you... But try to move on.

    July 27, 2010 at 13:53 | Report abuse | Reply
  15. onxheart

    My siblings and I endured physical, verbal and mental battering (NOT discipline, far from it) from our mother, while our "spectator" father looked out for himself. They are in mid-80s now, wondering why only one of the four adult children is in contact with them – well, one died by suicide (the one painted the blackest by her during his 26 years on this earth), two of us finally woke up and understood we deserved better, and one is still lost in the maelstrom of seeking approval from her abusers – you cannot be both rescuer and victim, which is what I tried to do for the first 40 years of my life. I have had open-heart surgery (hence my blog's name, as I rec'd an Onx titanium valve) and residual complications that meant two more surgeries...breaking contact with those biologically tied to us but the most toxic influences of our lives can be the best survival tactic of all. You owe no one any explanations. You deserve to be free and respected and autonomous. Please work at grasping how much you have lost but what is still out there for you to discover. Life IS good. Grab it and never look back at those who'd use you or harm you. Walk, dance, get plenty of sleep, be creative in your space with art or color or gardening...you are potential in motion. xoxo Never give up on yourself. Support those who speak up and speak out about abuse – it saves lives...

    July 27, 2010 at 13:58 | Report abuse | Reply
  16. Bobo

    As many have stated, they are products of abuse and can seem to find a link to health issues. I am also one of those people. Parents were dead by 5 and the abuse starts. I have heart desease and had my first heart attack at age 49. I have survived cancer twice, with the last bout two years ago. My counsler says that we have a thing called stress memory. When the body gets highly stressed all of the abuse comes back. We call it PTSD. What happens is the body reacts to the new high level of stress much the same way as it did many years ago. I could not understant that my memories of the abuse came to the for front of my mind when I was highly stressed. I would say why is this coming up now? Stress memory is an element of PTSD. The body reacts the same and that triggers the memory. My abuse was, physical, mental and sexual. I have learned to deal with it much better later in life. I had no support or couseling as a child. As children we suppress, because our abusers make us suppress. Without help shortly after the abuse, you will be troubled always. Find a couselor and get some help. It is never to late to ask for it.

    July 27, 2010 at 15:43 | Report abuse | Reply
  17. DP2010

    Christ didn't rate any one sin as worse than another, except where he pulled a child out of the crowd as an example, that, if any were to cause him to sin, it would be better that a millstone be hung around his neck. I believe this refers to child abuse and the cascade of negative effects that come from that.

    July 27, 2010 at 16:03 | Report abuse | Reply
  18. Squeezebox

    Lori, not everyone hitchhiked in 1977. When I was in first grade, in 1972 or so, I was spanked for accepting rides from strangers. Parents have been aware of the danger for at least 40 years. Still, the rapist is the one who did wrong, not you.

    July 27, 2010 at 17:44 | Report abuse | Reply
  19. Lori

    Squeezebox, I am glad your parents disciplined you in 1972, however you were in 1st grade. In 1977 I was 15 and in my world, people hitchhiked quite commonly, there were songs of it, movies about it, and famous people spoke about living it as a carefree hippie way to travel, it was glorified and celebrated, and no my parent was not a great parent, she was atrocious. Otherwise I would have had a ride home, like I always provided for my child. Thanks you are right about the sexual abuse, it was not my fault. I know this, but I did have to learn how to constantly stay vigilant and learn about safety, times were ever changing, and times have changed ALOT, today you don't let your child walk alone in your own neighborhood! You can't trust the coach, the babysitter, the man at church, the teacher, the priest, the neighbor, the grocer, the doctor, the repairman or the nice man you knew since school at age 12.

    July 27, 2010 at 19:04 | Report abuse | Reply
  20. onxheart

    SOME parents have been aware all along of danger lurking out there – in early 70s, me, too, Lori, every single day walking home from jr high by myself, in what I've since measured as almost 3 miles...afterschool activities meant no bus ride, there was no activity bus, my abusive mother could've cared less...little skinny waify teen girl, in same location every single day, rain or shine...by myself through nasty part of town – longer way was just as bad. I'd ride my bike for hours, she never asked where I'd be or when I'd be back...but let me go on a date in high school, she's there like a banshee if I was five minutes past 10:30 or so (stupidly early hours, I was too scared of her to break them)...so NO consistency. I look back and am so appalled...negligence goes hand in hand with abuse. Inconsistency same thing...they scream over this, could give a s**t about that...shifting sand, you never know where you are with them. Silent deadbeat father never cared, either. Abandonment by both even though we were all under the same roof. Always love to hear the excuse, "Times were different then," about "discipline" or whatever people try to call it. Beatings for next to nothing, but no real vigilance for my safety and welfare. Her account of all of that now? "I can't remember." How convenient. 🙁

    July 28, 2010 at 05:34 | Report abuse | Reply
  21. onxheart

    One thing I meant to include in the above harangue – possible answer for some of us is borderline personality disorder – excellent website that has a message board – http://www.bpdfamily.com/message_board/index.php?board=7.0 You can read there where other people have same type of family histories. Externalizing our past, in my opinion, helps us save our present and our future. We are not doctors, so, NO, we cannot diagnose. But I tell you what, I've had 40 years experience dealing with this woman and her raging abuses, you could call that some level of expertise, right? 😛 I am free to make judgement calls, that's for sure, and books about BPD and this site helped me understand it was never me – I didn't break it, I could never fix it. Keep looking for answers. Give denial the boot. Embrace your "new normal" of today and be as healthy as you can be! I'm determined to, and my heart surgery just made that all the more necessary.

    July 28, 2010 at 05:39 | Report abuse | Reply
  22. Chrissy

    I am a 53 year old woman with Cardiomyopathy, CHF, Anxiety, Depression and panic disorder. I also have a CRT-D device that has saved my life now on 3 occasions. As a child I was neglected, but suffered sexual abuse at the age of 8 – 9 and then again at 12-14. I have the ability,as mentioned in the study, to protect myself. I cannot remember any specifics about the abuse I experienced, I can only remember times, locations,then the blank, and then 'normal events' after. This ability to 'forget' has definately stayed with me. About 4 months ago I suffered a very distressing day, I was emotionally distraught and ended up trying to take my own life. However, I do not remember anything of the experience, only the conversation that triggered the emotional response. It is scary, when a mechanism that you used as a child, still surfaces when you are an adult. I thought I was coping with my lot very well, chronic illness in itself is enough to cope with, but I have since found out,through professional help, that all my responses are conditioned from my past. This has been an eye opening experience for me. I honestly thought that I had put all that behind me, I don't think about the past, but obviously the learned part of my coping as a child is still very present. I am now concentrating on staying in the present moment, of centering myself when stressful events happen, but more importantly I have finally acknowledged what happened to me as a child and this is helping me to cope with my responses to the present. I have also finally told friends and family of my experiences. The support has been overwhelming. No reason has ever been given for my cardiomyopathy, my arteries and other markers are fine. I was diagnosed 10 years ago, and am still here and travelling pretty well. I wouldn't be dead for quids, I have lots of things to look forward to, and the journey I am on at the moment is very satisfying personally..

    August 1, 2010 at 04:40 | Report abuse | Reply
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