March 18th, 2010
11:31 AM ET
Is aspartame safe?
As a feature of CNNhealth.com, our team of expert doctors answers readers' questions. Here's a question for Dr. Gupta.
From Richard Casselli, Kitchener, Ontario, Canada
"How dangerous is food containing aspartame? Do you personally avoid it? Its been linked to the possible cause of brain tumours or other nervous system defects. If it's so dangerous, why is it still in our foods? Should we be avoiding aspartame?"
This is an interesting question, Richard, and an equally interesting debate that is ignited every few years or so. The big concern for some consumer groups and scientists echoes your own: Does aspartame cause cancer?
In the 1990s a researcher suggested that rates of brain cancer seemed to surge at about the same time aspartame was introduced here. Add to that various studies in rats suggesting aspartame could cause cancers like leukemia and lymphoma, and you may understand why concern about this artificial sweetener lingers.
The fact is, current evidence does not support this idea that aspartame could cause cancer, or that it is unsafe. According to the American Dietetic Association, aspartame’s safety is documented in more than 200 objective scientific studies. The Food and Drug Administration has concluded that aspartame is safe, and there are no strong data out there to refute that.
In 2007, the most comprehensive look at the research was conducted, and the conclusion was, again, that aspartame is safe. An important caveat to that research – it was paid for by the company Ajinomoto, which makes aspartame.
Thing is, about 6,000 products – including soft drinks, gum, candy, pudding, yogurt – all contain aspartame. When a product is so widely used, it often happens that there is some scientific scrutiny. So I would imagine this debate and these studies will continue for quite a while.
You asked if I use artificial sweeteners myself. Fortunately for my waistline, I do not have an affinity for sweets, so whether the sugar is real or artificial, I tend to steer clear. I favor fresh fruit to get my sweet fix, and fruit ultimately leaves me feeling fuller.
Now, if you do choose to use aspartame, keep in mind moderation. The FDA recommends a daily intake of no more than 50 mg of aspartame per kilogram of body weight. That amounts to 22 cans of diet soda for a 175-pound man, and 15 cans for a 120 pound woman.
And you want to exercise that moderation for any ingredient in your diet. Don't go overboard with the sugar-free foods - make sure to include low-fat foods, natural sugars, and fats to your diet. Skewing your diet in any one direction will create an unhealthy imbalance.
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Get a behind-the-scenes look at the latest stories from CNN Chief Medical Correspondent, Dr. Sanjay Gupta, Senior Medical Correspondent Elizabeth Cohen and the CNN Medical Unit producers. They'll share news and views on health and medical trends - info that will help you take better care of yourself and the people you love.
I lecture on the topic of Brain Health and Nutrition. I am a Neurotherapist (retraining brainwaves with computer software by reading the EEG). Also, as a type 1 diabetic of 28 years, I have researched this subject for years. If you really want to know the truth read the congressional records that led to Aspartame being denied for human consumption – because it showed carcinogenic outcomes in animals. Visit: Aspartame (Nutrasweet) Toxicity Info Center at the website http://www.holisticmed.com Details scientific and general documentation regarding the toxicity of nutrasweet, Equal, diet coke, diet pepsi, and other aspartame containing items. Janet Hull's Web page includes real life reports of acute and chronic toxicity due to long-term use. You read and decide but why would you even take a chance?
You can listen to someone who "lectures" or you can listen to the FDA and the European Safety Authority which have looked at extensive studies and found no discernible health risk connected to aspartame. Or you can look at the millions of people in the last 30 years who have consumed this substance and see that there is no health risk. All I hear is anecdotal evidence from people that it causes headaches or nausea-big deal. Lots of foods do that so avoid them if they do. We have an abundance of evidence that sugar filled foods cause health problems. Base things on science people-not internet rumors and anecdotes.
Or you could wake up and realize that the FDA is bought and paid for, that's why the actively allow corporations to hide their additives on the ingredients lists. They're not about protecting the consumer anymore. Just because the FDA declares something to be safe does not make it safe. A bit of money under the table and a bought out corporate study is all it takes. Aspartame was originally labeled as a biochemical warfare agent by the pentagon. It is by no means safe for assumption.
>safe for consumption.
Darn tootin the FDA is bought and paid for. I hired them to do my roofing just this spring. Tipped them extra and they did so much more on the sly.
I tried drinking Diet Pepsi instead of regular Coke to save on calories. Didn't drink a lot...maybe 2 a day. But it made me feel weird...like I was in a fog. Felt normal again after I stopped drinking it. My brother-in-law was having kidney pain. He drank a lot of Diet Pepsi. After he quit, the pain went away.
I drank a diet pepsi for the first time in my life. And then all of a sudden a foot grew out of my forehead. And sure enough that foot had a cancer tumor on it. No thanks diet pepsi.
I am a RN and my husband is a Veterinarian. This past February he went on an equine emergency call a great distance from our house in the early morning and he ask me to make him something to take with him for breakfast. I knew that he would need something warm to drink (since snow was predicted, yes even in the South) therefore, i made him hot apple cider from a package and placed in his thermos. He called about a hour later and said that he was so sick that he barely made it to the equine farm.He had to pulled the vet truck over to the side of the road because his vision and ability to drive was impaired before he finally made it to the farm. The client happen to be a retired RN and they made arrangements for someone to drive him and his vet truck back home because he was so sick. I phoned the head pharmacist at the hospital and she said that he had been poisoned by aspartame. I started my research on this product and it is called the "sweet poison". If heated above 86 degrees F. it turns to formaledhyde that we use on tissues to preserve them for the lab testing. If you research this product, you will be so scared of what it will do to you. I have a great story on my computer that i will send to anyone that is interested. It will really open your eyes to this horrible product!!!! We tell everyone we talk to about "the sweet poison" and had it almost killed him!!!!
I would love to hear your story im currently trying to research this stuff on my own and maybe your story can help
Hi Elaine. Please, if you still have that article you mentioned, I would like you to send it to me.
We are being bombarded by unsafe "foods" and "food additives". Why do the FDA and Health Canada not act?
Well, aside from the many powerful lobby groups, their mandate is only to act on "acute" cases. Anything that takes a
generation to show its danger, that is, acts "chronically" is simply ignored. Usually the reasoning is, there are so many other factors in our environment. Your husband obviously had an acute case! There was a great article on aspartame in the women's fitness magazine "Oxygen" a few years ago. Clearly the FDA was misled by both the toxicity and the amount of this health toxin by the company promoting it. And Wrigley's in Australia had a huge public relations mess when it snuck aspartame into its gum without "warning" anyone. And even worse, you don't lose weight using "diet pops". Even worse, high fructose corn syrup in regular pop is now directly linked to obesity and Type 2 diabetes. What can we do? I avoid all soda pop and have also virtually eliminated wheat thanks to "Wheat Belly" by Dr. Davis. Thanks for your post!
Greg Shea (Lake Cowichan, BC, Canada)
It is clear that people jump on certain keywords like formaldehyde. While what you said is true, this does happen, one thing people tend to leave out or unaware of is the fact that this is also produced from fruits, such as tomato's, tomato juices among others, in a higher concentration than what is seem in this so called "sweet poison". Aspartame is dangerous in excess as are most things, however all these anecdotal stories account for nil. The European Food Safety Administration has conducted numerous studies since the 80's on aspartame all of which are available online, and all which concluded the same. It is not toxic as long as the current acceptable daily intake levels are not exceeded. All this began because of a stupid Markle chain email that made claims that there simply was not any evidence to support, but the public sure will jump on things like this. It is in line with the same crap as vaccines and autism. Of course the person who started that lost their medical license, at least.
Yes aspartame is bad for humans and animals!
How do you know, dennis? Got any sources for this claim?
From Quackwatch:A perfect example of how the public can be misled is a recent Internet article by a Nancy Markle that has taken on a "cyberlife" of its own. The article alleges that aspartame (a sweetener found in food and beverages) causes lupus, multiple sclerosis (MS) and other diseases and conditions, none of which has any scientific validity. Highly respected health professional organizations were fraudulently associated with the story, and numerous vulnerable people were needlessly frightened by this scientifically false allegation.
Can you send me the story on Aspertame, please.
After being injured in two auto accidents, I was diagnosed with fibromyalgia and prescribed a drug often used for this diagnosis. I almost totally gave up soda, diet or otherwise, years ago. I have been on many diet plans throughout the years, and most recommended "diet" foods like Crystal Lite and yogurt, low-fat or sugar-free frozen desserts, and chewing gum. I started chewing a lot of gum in the last few years, mostly to relieve thirst. I was buying a lot of sugar-free gum, even in bulk; chain chewing. I know the act was unbecoming, and it really didn't help the thirst. I craved it to the point of addiction. Finally, when the itching (without rash) became so intense, I saw my physician. A lot of time was spent on me. I had discontinued the drug for fybromyalgia. This put me back in the state of pain before the drug. The PA could not pinpoint the cause of itching. Later, I was reading the allergy warning on the gum packaging: phenyetonurics, phenylalamine. Don't know if these are spelled correctly. Difficult to read on the little black box.
I punched these words into a search and sure enough, ASPARTAME came up. The more I had been chewing, the more I itched and needed more gum! I was in agony. My vision was blurred, I had heart palpitations, could not eat the spicy foods I once loved. I felt light-headed and nauseous and was gagging. Besides the gum, I was eating the frozen desserts and sugar-free candy, yogurt, etc. I actually went through withdrawl and was very angry that I could have been so fooled. I still itch when I eat something that doesn't identify "aspartame" on the label. This stuff is poison!
I'm sorry, but this is just stupid. Keep researching.
I was recently diagnosed with fructose intolerance. You may be wondering why I'm posting her. Well, I cut all sugar and artificial sugar from my diet for 5 days now. I have not had any diet drinks with aspartame until yesterday. I drank maybe 6 ounces and had a bad headache where I took medication. I rarely have headaches and couldn't figure out what caused it. Then today I was at the grocery story and bought a diet soda with aspartame. Within 10 minutes of drinking a portion – I had that same headache again. I'm convinced it is causing me to have bad headaches. Nor more aspartame for me.
Dr. Gupta, will you be going on air to discuss the relationship between Autism and Aspartame? The Senate is determining what correlates with Autism. For the Senate Hearing on Autism going on this month, it may be beneficial to know that along with Mercury and other contaminations in the environment, Aspartame (NutraSweet and Equal) has also been linked to Autism. If you email me back and ask for the information I have, I can show you a chart that significantly matches Autism rates with Aspartame use rate. Europe has banned the use of Aspartame for pregnant and nursing women as well as children. The countries where Aspartame has been banned or never accepted, their Autism rate is only a small fraction of the U.S. rate. Since Aspartame has been approved in 1981, and placed in soft drinks in 1986, the Autism rate has skyrocketed. The Aspartame notes page explains just a few studies on how Aspartame has been linked with brain disorders I hope this information helps.
Some Main Points:
Dr. Olney warned of the damage that this product would do to the unborn and to children. He said that the FDA acknowledged "aspartame had been shown to induce brain damage in neonatal animals” but FDA dismissed the neurotoxicity as irrelevant on grounds that the approved uses of aspartame don’t include feeding it to newborn humans. Yet aspartame can be found in prescription and over-the-counter pediatric drugs and in pediatric vitamins. Nursing babies receive this poison from mothers who breastfeed. How gruesome! The recent plague of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), autism, and birth defects manifest the neurologic devastations of aspartame. Supporting this view, Dr. Louis Elsas, Emory Professor of Pediatrics and Genetics, testified in a congressional hearing that aspartame is a teratogen (causes birth defects) and a neurotoxin.
Aspartame is a teratogen that triggers birth defects. It is a deadly neurotoxin (Dr. Louis Elsas testimony before congress, pediatric professor,genetics, Emory, http://www.dorway.com). Neurosurgeon Russell Blaylock, M.D. says in his book that aspartame triggers ADD and autism.
1. Is there scientific evidence that pregnant women should not consume products containing aspartame?
The ANS Panel assessed potential risks of aspartame for pregnant women by evaluating the safety of concentrations of the breakdown product phenylalanine in blood following the consumption of aspartame-containing products. Phenylalanine is known to be toxic at high intake levels, in particular to the developing fetus in women suffering from the medical condition phenylketonuria (PKU). The Panel concluded there is no safety concern for pregnant women at current levels of exposure.
You are wrong! Asparatame has not been banned in Europe. It was deemed by both the FDA and the European Safety Authority as safe ven for pregnant women. Why do people keep spreading lies. The following is from the European Safety Authority website:
Furthermore, in relation to EFSA’s previous work the Panel’s new assessment of the Halldorsson et al. (2010) publication concluded that there is no evidence available in this study to support a causal relationship between the consumption of artificially sweetened soft drinks and preterm delivery and that additional studies would be required either to confirm or reject such an association, as indicated by the authors. In an additional study conducted in Norway by Englund-Ögge et al. (2012), there was a barely discernible association of pre-term delivery with artificially sweetened soft drinks. In fact, this was not as strong as the association with sugar-sweetened soft drinks.
After suffering from strong stomach pain and bloating for several weeks I sought medical advice. First I tried medication, such as Nexium, which did not help at all. Next came ct scans which also came up negative. Before I was scheduled to have a gastroscope a friend asked me if I consumed a lot of Alpertame. I don't drink diet soda but I was drinking about 12oz of Crystal light several days a week (not a huge amount). She told me about her experience, and within a week of completely avoiding Aspartame my symptoms have disappeared. I still use Sweet and Low (saccarin) and am symptom free! You do the math.
If you have Restless Leg Syndrome, try cutting out all aspartame. It helps. (I read somewhere about a connection between aspartame and seratonin/dopamine levels in the brain – also connected to Parkinsons).
My brother recently had open-heart surgery. His cardiologist told him that aspertame causes hardening of the arteries and no one should be drinking it. Has anyone else heard this?
You people are idiots. You're buying into paranoia and using your "symptoms from drinking diet soda" as an excuse for confirmation bias to say "aha! The studies don't tell the truth." Come on...
I've been drinking diet soda for YEARS! And I haven't felt any of these adverse effects. Maybe I'm just a genetic anomaly or something, but if it's so bad, why haven't I at least felt SOMETHING?? I'm tired of this food paranoia. Tired of all these myths. People are just believing what they wanna believe regarding asparatme, GMOs, MSG, etc. because they can't come up with a logical, fact-based explanation.
Brandon, you're using the fact that you have not noticed symptoms to discredit large groups of people that you don't know. If you can't tell the difference between bought out corporate science and real science then I feel bad for you. Aspartame was originally labeled a biochemical warfare agent by the Pentagon.
Paranoia about all kinds of stuff, like vaccines, food, etc., has been with humanity for ages. It wasn't too long ago that we referred to certain "humors" and used THAT to diagnose and 'treat' illness. It wasn't too long ago that many nations in Europe, among probably other places, would do bloodletting to "let the demons out" when someone had a particular illness.
Read some actual empirical studies, not pretend like you had "symptoms" simply because something bad happened, and you were also drinking diet soda. If a fatass who ate McDonald's all day got a heart attack but ALSO drank a few cans of diet soda and got a heart attack, you'd probably say "aha! it was the diet soda."
Lucky you. Perhaps one day if yourself or a loved one suffers adverse effects from a specific food, you will gain some humility or empathy for those who have problems eating certain foods. Just because it does not affect you does not mean that it has no ill effects. For instance, my husband cannot eat certain foods that trigger an immune response from his gut. I can. This restricts his diet quite a bit, but if he decides to just eat what he wants, it triggers an inflamatory response in his eyes, lymph nodes, intestines, etc. In researching the types of foods he can and cannot eat, we have discovered that ordinary table salt is poison, (although we need the iodine in it for thyroid function). You or I would never know it, because our bodies tolerate it. Garlic and onions are bad news in most people as well. But just because our bodies tolerate something doesn't mean that it isn't bad for us. This is the case for many foods and many chemicals.
Well, said Brandon.
We're not idiots, you're just a sheep. Aspartame was labeled as a biochemical warfare agent by the pentagon. It is literally poison. The FDA is bought out and paid for. If I have symptoms whenever I consume aspartame, and only when I consume aspartame then that's a pretty clear sign what the problem is. I could care less what your bought out corporate science says on the issue, these are the same people who got fluoride put in our drinking water. The real science on the matter is clear that aspartame is poison. Maybe you should do a bit of research before you make a fool of yourself next time?
Andy, not disputing you, but please share your source re: biochemical warfare agent.
Gee, what a shock. Radio silence from Andy on a source for the claim he made about aspartame.
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the great thing about stevia is that it is also tooth friendly like xylitol sweeteners.:"
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It is insulting when any report on the safety of food, in this case aspartame, is done by the manufacture of the ingredient. Logic says that the study can't be trusted and there is more behind the scene. People are getting very tired of being lied to.
Why are we using a man made chemical when we could be using stevia, a natural product that has been proven safe; it is grown in china and used for many years without problems.
I have to chew gum (I have chronic dry mouth and eyes) around the clock. The gum is all made with aspartame. You can't find a product in any popular store that isn't a sugar free gum. Specialty gums that have sugar or stevia is so expensive that I couldn't afford to buy it. I looked for recipe's so I could make my own but the ingredients are hard to come by and hard to make.
I would like to see testing done on aspartame that is scientific and not connected by a manufacturer in any way.
I believe that aspartame has something to do with the chronic obesity problem we have in America...just a gut feeling. I would like to see a study done with that in mind.
Thanks for letting me vent.
Carol, Priest River, ID
People are concerned about chewing gum...go to the health food store...they have lots of gum without aspartame in it. Too many people are having problems with aspartame, so we should have more research done for the safety and health of the consumer We have to be careful who conducts the study because of special interests. Who will do this?
Stevia is not proven safe. Infact stevia is proven to cause genetic mutations and it is carcinogenic. just saying. Everything is fine in moderation. consuming large amounts of anything is unsafe. for instance consuming large amounts of food is unhealthy and will cause health problems if you over eat every day. People need to learn balance. Just because something is natural doesn't mean it is safe. for instance is natural so is moonshine.
I agree completely Carol, 'safety' tests that are paid for by the manufacturer of the product should be used as toilet paper. If the manufacturer stands to gain something if their product is deemed safe then they have a bias. "Research" done by the FDA is also meaningless anymore. The FDA is bought and paid for. The only research worth considering is research done by independent sources, which have been pretty unified in declaring Aspartame to be dangerous.
Then you should be able to cite these "sources", Andy. I doubt you will, because any you find are probably bogus.
You are either
A. an idiot
B. paid by the FDA
C. working for a company that makes aspartame
Of course, when one doesn't have any facts, it's always a conspiracy
You're not convincing anybody "J", Aspartame was originally labeled as a biochemical warfare agent by the pentagon.
Funny how you have no source to back up your claim, Andy. I think you're full of it.
aspartame has some nasty side effects too plus its long term effects on health is still not known..
It has always been my belief that good writing like this takes research and talent. It is quite apparent you might have done your homework. Excellent job!
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I am 100,000% in agreement with Brandon (sorry Jiff). Most of the posts here are similar to people believing that aliens landed at Area 51. Did you not read the article? Do you not read at all? Do you understand what scientific journals are or what value they have in our society? Do you see gremlins or believe everything is a conspiracy somehow? Do you think the government is tapping your phone line for some random reason? Do you feel that "science" is a bunch of hokum and actually a communist plot? And NO I DON'T WORK FOR ANYONE that achieves any value from the sale of products containing aspertame. Oh, and also, I am not currently typing these words because aspertame has gone to my head and has brainwashed me. Aspertame is one of the most thoroughly-tested food additives in history. Read what the Dr. said. There is NO CREDIBLE EVIDENCE that aspartame is not safe for consumpsion – as long as you drink under 20 cans a day if you are a male who weighs about 175 pounds or more. Most people are fine with drinking less than 20 cans of soda per day. Deal with it. Just deal with it.
Read Dr Blaylocks book. Brandon what if was the transfat and the diet soda, msg combination ? What if money corrupts ? What id the FDA new it caused problems ? http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/03/Jan03/012203/02P-0317_emc-000199.txt
So, how do you feel about the phone tapping comment now that the NSA has been exposed?
Thank you, Dr. Gupta, for a reasoned response. Hmm. Current evidence does not support the idea that aspartame is unsafe. I understand that substances that are generally safe, (peanuts, for example) can sometimes cause harm to certain individuals, but that does not mean that EVERYONE should avoid them. I like my aspartame. There is no current eviedence that it is harmful. People should stop trying to scare me with their individual anecdotes.
Oh don't forget tobacco was shown to be safe by tobacco sponsored research also. Try thinking for a change .. it doesn't hurt.
I don't think that logic works Dr. Thomas. Aspartame has been evaluated by the FDA and a multiple of other government agencies and shown to be safe.
I drink about 5-10 cans of aspartame ridden sodas every day, no side effects whatsoever other than having to pee a lot. I should also note that I'm a healthy weight and very active. Maybe you should all consider that it's something else that you're blaming aspartame for.
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Very good read. thanks for sharing. I must admit to using the little yellow packets for about four years until I started growing my own Stevia in a container on my patio.
I love making my own stevia simple syrup by adding a cup of warm water to 1/4 cup of fresh, finely-crushed stevia leaves. It works perfectly for sweetening beverages.
Either this doctor is a complete idiot or he thinks we are complete idiots....The original info is right when aspartame was introduced to our food cancer soared and the recent studies are simply incomplete studies that do not give the true information. Of course they are not going to tell us the truth about the studies...they just keep saying "200 studies" what 200 studies we want all the information on each imparticular study how long it was ran the outcome and conclusion. Cant do that can you MONSANTO is the demented brain behind this creation. It is digusting on of the ingredients is the feces of e coli and they want to make this out to be good for us and okay for people..ITS BULL...people are really disgusting feeding this crap along with lies to the people. The govt is largely to blame for approving this crap when they new what it was. My family and I are going on an all natural diet cutting out all artificial sweetners and genetically modified food. Since almost everything has is this will create a very more healthy diet for my family and I suggest you do the same. I never liked artificial sweetner because it tastes like POISON because that is exactly what it is POISON. We can put these goofball corporations out of business by simply not eating or buying anything with artificial sweetner...RED YOUR LABELS from now on. Oh and I have an alternative to sugary drinks....its called WATER!!!
E. Coli is a bacteria. It does not produce feces. It is FOUND in human feces. If your scientific knowledge base is that flawed, who would believe anything else you are touting? There are no secrets in medicine. You are being gulled by quackery and pseudoscience, which preys on those with scanty factual knowledge.
If you are one of the millions of Americans who is concerned about being overweight or about eating too much sugar, chances are you have eaten or drank products containing aspartame. You have been told by the FDA and the manufacturers of these products that they are perfectly safe. But, just how safe are they?
Its not credible to quote research by a company with a financial conflict, so why even mention it. If aspartame is so safe you should be able to drink it just like water no matter what your weight is. Fortunately, rational people who actually have taken the time to do the research see there is a problem with the product and that there is corruption in the regulatory system problem and its a good idea to share that knowledge with others.
As for the folks who say its imagination, and that people should stop complaining and get over it, then I would say if you don't think its a problem you should just keep on drinking as much of it as possible.
You speak as if that particular study was the only one to be done. Europe has been conducting studies on aspartame since the 80's all of which produced the same results. That it is not toxic if you stay under the acceptable daily intake. The claim that if it's safe you can drink it like water is asinine, as there is not any substance on Earth that can be used without moderation that does not have some medical side effect. This includes water (water intoxication). You see, what we have on this page is a bunch of opinions that aren't based on anything more than anecdotal evidence or because of studies conducted on animals, that were conducted in a flawed manner. It doesn't matter if the study was flawed though, because that's not 'good news'. As far as anecdotal evidence, well it should be apparent why that is actually worthless in terms of judging something's safety overall...
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I live in Europe and like many Americans would like to reduce my sugar intake with a sweetener. I drink a lot of squash (concentrate mixed with tap water) and when not feeling well I have blamed the aspartame in the product and say I will never drink it again. Then when I do start drinking it again I feel fine, and tell myself it wasn't the aspartame after all – until the next time I don't feel too good then of course it's the aspartame again. My point is I think we can convince ourselves of anything without any good reason – I have long periods of feeling fine, then a few days with sinus or headaches or feeling tired – but my diet ( including aspartame in tea of which I drink about ten cups a day) is exactly the same as when I feel fine, so how can I blame any particular food? I think if there ever was a conspiracy concerning the scientific studies it would have been impossible to keep it a secret, a leak or a whistle-blower would have come to light by now but it hasn't so how can so many different studies all be flawed? If you don't trust it then fine, don't use it, but don't blame it for every medical problem you may suffer without any reasonable proof. This is a good site with some good posts, thanks.
I drink Crystal Light everyday which Contains Aspartame with no side affects. How ever if I eat too many processed meats I get migraines. Does that mean that processed meat is toxic and should be taken out of the deli's? No, it just means that high amount of nitrates act as a trigger to my migraines so I need to balance the amount I eat. People love to be scared and love even more a good conspiracy story. So my advice, QUIT TROLLING!
L-Phenylalanine is biologically converted into L-tyrosine, another one of the DNA-encoded amino acids. L-tyrosine in turn is converted into L-DOPA, which is further converted into dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and epinephrine (adrenaline). The latter three are known as the catecholamines.:^.`
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