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Why your back, feet hurt: blame evolution
February 20th, 2013
03:39 PM ET

Why your back, feet hurt: blame evolution

The fact that many people's backs and feet hurt is news that's millions of years old.

It's because of the way we have evolved, uniquely from other mammals, that we also have a lot of aches and pains that our close relatives do not experience, anthropologists said last weekend at a briefing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science annual meeting.

"We’ve known for a long time, since Darwin’s time, that humans have evolved, and that humans are not perfect, because evolution doesn’t produce perfection," said Jeremy DeSilva, anthropologist at Boston University.

For instance, humans are the only mammals that can have scoliosis, a condition in which the spine has an abnormal curvature, said Bruce Latimer of Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio.

Owners of a Homo erectus skeleton from around 1.5 million years ago and the Lucy skeleton, more than 3 million years old, both appear to have had back problems, Latimer said.

Humans evolved from an animal whose back was horizontal, parallel with the ground. But the human spine evolved to be upright, and the body needed to balance over hips and feet. That's why the spine needed curves in it, but it's still not an optimal system.

Over the course of a lifetime, with the stresses and loads of daily activities, we're apt to develop problems such as a herniated disk. Even walking, with the process of moving our arms and legs to carry an upright back, results in a constant twisting and torquing of the spine, Latimer said. No other animal has to deal with a mechanical system in this way.

Evolution is a process that tinkers with existing materials; it can't create perfection, Latimer said. "You use paper clips and duct tape to make these things work. You can’t invent a brand new spine."

Humans are also the only mammals that carry things in front of them. It's recommended that you bend your knees when picking up something heavy to reduce the force on the spine, but you might find yourself in pain one day while bending over to lift a grocery bag from the trunk of your car.

"The design specs on your body are about 45 or 50 (years old)," Latimer said. "If you take care of it, your spine will get you through that. But after that, you’re on your own."

Likewise, the human foot's structure has evolved in a way that also causes problems. There are 26 bones in the foot, and as a whole it's not designed to shield us from pain. In fact, there's ancient evidence of ankle sprains, osteoarthritis and fractured ankles, back to the origins of upright walking, DeSilva said.

The arch is an area of the foot that particularly causes a lot of problems - so why do we have them?

There are two leading theories, DeSilva said. One is that the arch acts as a shock absorber, taking up many of the forces within the foot during walking to prevent them from reaching the joints. The other idea is being developed by scientists such as Daniel Lieberman's group at Harvard; they look at how the arch is made of ligaments that can stretch and recoil in relation to the mechanics of running.

And how about the chronic pain from wisdom teeth? Although these "third molars" may not make you smarter, they are actually connected to the evolution of the human brain, said Alan Mann, anthropologist at Princeton University.

The size of our brains is more than three times that of our ancient ancestors, Mann said. The architecture of the brain case had to change to accommodate that, and so did the way that the facial skeleton fit with the cranial skeleton.

Thousands of years ago, a gene mutation appeared that's associated with an absence of wisdom teeth. This is especially pronounced in some groups; about 45% of Inuits are missing third molars, Mann said. Neanderthal adults, on the other hand, appear to have consistently had wisdom teeth.

Walking upright on two feet also makes childbirth tricky, said Karen Rosenberg of the University of Delaware. Our species has come up with a cultural solution: Have someone there to help, be it a midwife or an obstetrician, to mitigate the risks that come with the birth process.

"Evolution has been functional in ourselves, yet we are suffering these problems," Mann said. "And many of those problems are going to remain as part of our biology."


soundoff (80 Responses)
  1. thinkifyoucan

    So what you are telling me is with my Northern European heritage and my lack of 3rd molars makes me a more modern mutant? Cool?

    February 20, 2013 at 17:27 | Report abuse | Reply
    • jjosh

      There is absolutely no evidence of evolution ever having occurred since the beginning of time. Nothing more complicated comes from something less complicated without external input. This is like saying that a cabin in the woods was made by itself through years of cosmic changes. All have been refuted by modern scientists as nonsense. Yet these fools still try to find a missing link to humans. Utter stupidity.

      February 21, 2013 at 08:15 | Report abuse |
    • LOL@jjosh

      You have clearly not evolved.

      February 21, 2013 at 08:56 | Report abuse |
    • dyfts

      jjosh: So do you believe that offspring DON'T share the genes and chromosomes of their parents? How do you think we get designer dog or cow breeds? I am always curious as to how people who don't believe in genetics explain how young look like their parents, and how farmers breed such specalized animals.

      February 21, 2013 at 09:12 | Report abuse |
    • Paul

      This jjosh guy sure has a funny use of the word "evidence".

      February 21, 2013 at 09:48 | Report abuse |
    • TheSchmaltz

      Ok, I've done my homework, and there's a lot of evidence.

      if you wanted to say it's not proven we could have a discussion about that, but to say that no evidence exists at all is just ignorant. We can draw different conclusions about the evidence, but to deny that it exists is stupid.

      February 21, 2013 at 10:23 | Report abuse |
    • Do my homework???

      I have an degree in biology. I've done plenty of "homework". Why don't you put some real effort in and do yours? Just surfing the web for wingnuts who support what you already believe does not count.

      February 21, 2013 at 11:44 | Report abuse |
    • Mandor

      as far as mutant powers go, lack of wisdom teeth is not nearly as cool as what the rest of the X-Men got. :)

      February 23, 2013 at 00:22 | Report abuse |
  2. Gaven

    What, all of a sudden "god" gets off the hook and evolution is blamed for all our troubles? Lame. :p

    February 20, 2013 at 18:02 | Report abuse | Reply
    • JohnC

      Well I suppose if you really want to blame God you can blame Him for how He uses evolution to build creation. Or maybe He IS doing a wonderful job of evolving a perfect being and WE are the missing link on that evolutionary journey - maybe a million years from now He will have evolved one heck of a great being.

      February 21, 2013 at 12:05 | Report abuse |
  3. Lou

    Sort of kills the idea of intelligent design, doesn't it. If a design engineer did this bad a job, we would fire him – let's fire god!

    February 20, 2013 at 18:33 | Report abuse | Reply
  4. Ahhhhhhhh.......

    ..... that 'splains everything !!!!!

    February 20, 2013 at 19:00 | Report abuse | Reply
  5. Bob

    There is footage of a whale with scoliosis... article is ridiculous.

    February 20, 2013 at 19:07 | Report abuse | Reply
    • MashaSobaka

      There is footage of a dolphin with some sort of spinal deformity. Not all spinal deformities are scoliosis.

      February 20, 2013 at 22:08 | Report abuse |
  6. Blain

    So, evangelical Christians don't believe in evolution. Then why do they too have back pains? Good question, eh?

    February 20, 2013 at 20:26 | Report abuse | Reply
    • AJ

      It's the devil

      February 20, 2013 at 20:50 | Report abuse |
    • JohnC

      They like using the story of being kicked out of the Garden of Eden to explain most of life's inperfections and suffering. These questions were also asked ages ago and there were folks able to come up with some fine answers to almost any such question.

      February 21, 2013 at 12:08 | Report abuse |
  7. Sarah

    Humans are NOT the only mammals that can have scoliosis.

    February 20, 2013 at 22:11 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Paul

      which then? It seems like other apes should too, right?

      February 21, 2013 at 09:49 | Report abuse |
  8. Philip

    I thought evolution was supposed to make us perfect.

    February 20, 2013 at 22:22 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Rob

      Nope, go read the Selfish Gene or some other book by a respected evolutionary biologist. Evolution is not supposed to make any species perfect. People who do not understand evolution often take this position.

      February 20, 2013 at 23:18 | Report abuse |
    • Randy

      Not quite Philip. Natural selection is the process that weeds out the less-fit. However, since humans became quite good at modifying the environment to suit us and helping our less-able offspring to survive rather than be eaten by wolves, we've averted quite a bit of that pesky natural selection but ensured that many of our undesirable traits will survive to be passed along as well.

      February 20, 2013 at 23:56 | Report abuse |
    • Troy

      Evolution creates that which is better than the next guy. "I don't have to be fastest to avoid getting eaten, just faster than the slowest."

      February 21, 2013 at 01:23 | Report abuse |
    • JohnC

      Evolutions merely results in animals that can reproduce well for the given environment. Often that does mean better in some sense. But evolution isn't a thnking designer striving for some goal, but rather random changes where some seem to help a species survive better at least for a while and so that changes spreads through reproduction. Perhaps evolution WILL make a somewhat more perfect human but we are just the missing link on the road to that end.

      February 21, 2013 at 12:12 | Report abuse |
    • This "perfection" idea is a hangover from religious ideation

      Evolution has nothing to do with perfection. It also has nothing to do with the "social evolution" concept of making one person "stronger", "better" or more deserving than another.

      It is a very very simple mechanism. You survive long enough to produce off-spring, or you do not. Those who do not survive, do not pass on their genes. Those who do survive, do pass on their genes. Where does "perfection" come in to that idea? No where. You can have plenty of kids and still get back pain in middle-age. The notion of "perfection" (or even of being "fit" in the colloquial sense) gets mistakenly injected into the concept by individuals trying to view evolution from a religious or political position.

      Genes mutate; it happens constantly. This is why there is a new strain of the flu every year. You do not need to wait millions of years to observe evolution; it happens on a very human timescale. And again, what does the idea of "perfection" have to do with a virus mutating and making many of us miserable every year, and killing some of us?

      Most mutations are not beneficial; one common cause of miscarriage is that a random mutation led to a fetus that was not viable. In fact, a great many times women become pregnant and never even know because the fetus does not survive long enough. No perfection here.

      Some mutations are beneficial. When one occurs which allows the recipient to better survive and produce more offspring, that gene mutation will spread due to the simple fact that that individual has more children, who themselves receive the beneficial change.

      What makes a change beneficial depends on how it allows that individual to fare within the environment in which it lives. This is where selection comes in. Natural selection is the natural environment placing pressure on a population. Darwin called it "natural" selection to distinguish it from human selection, or breeding, which we've known about for thousands of years. It is what allowed us to create many new and specialized varieties of crops and livestock. That is also evolution; just a different selection mechanism. The underlying principal of mutation, survival and passing on of the mutation to offspring is the same. This is another very clear example of the fact that evolution happens. We could never have produced new breeds or strains of anything if genes did not mutate. But, instead of an environmental change placing selection pressure on the species, it is a human deciding that it likes chickens that lay more and larger eggs over one that lays fewer and smaller eggs; so the more productive chicken survives and has more offspring and the less productive chicken is dinner. Perfection has nothing to do with that.

      There is no end goal of evolution. There is no apex. There is no perfection. It is a constant ongoing natural process that will continue until life is extinguished on this planet.

      February 21, 2013 at 12:19 | Report abuse |
    • Johan S

      I thought God was supposed to make us perfect.

      February 23, 2013 at 13:03 | Report abuse |
  9. uffette

    in thine crunks and in thine slunks

    February 20, 2013 at 23:18 | Report abuse | Reply
  10. SK

    Blame the office chairs we sit in for 40 years.

    February 20, 2013 at 23:53 | Report abuse | Reply
  11. Name*b

    i think this article lacked a personal twist. many humans, especially americans have spinal problems because of our activities of daily living, or lack there of! our bodies were not designed to be sitting at a computer desk for 8 hours a day then sit on the couch for another 8. a sedentary lifestyle and a poor diet will take its toll. all we can do is work with what we have and do our best to prevent spinal problems and more. stretching, yoga, chiropractic, tai chi, acupuncture, raindrop, etc – whatever the modality of choice is, do it!

    February 21, 2013 at 08:55 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Natalie

      Agree with you sista!

      February 21, 2013 at 12:36 | Report abuse |
    • KC

      Actually, my spine problems are a result of being physically active - athletic injuries. In my case, I would've been better off sitting all the time.

      February 22, 2013 at 08:26 | Report abuse |
  12. Rodboy

    The people that work out and eat right seem to have less of the pain, so maybe the difference is animals are not lazy and sit around all day. Of this is just a theory like evolution, maybe we should look for the back pain gene , which could next to the fat gene or the drug addict gene.

    February 21, 2013 at 09:38 | Report abuse | Reply
  13. empresstrudy

    Let's blame the Jews.

    February 21, 2013 at 09:39 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Zorn

      The tribe's certainly screwed up the world for the rest of us, but I'll give them a pass on this one.

      February 21, 2013 at 11:04 | Report abuse |
  14. sativa619

    Incorrect CNN. Humans are not the only animals that can have scoliosis. It has been observed in humpback whales (recently I might add), and a variety of other non-primate mammals.

    February 21, 2013 at 11:30 | Report abuse | Reply
  15. LloydChiro

    Work with what you've got. If you aren't in pain now, now is the time to exercise your core, and strengthen your back muscles. Some of my favorite low back exercises are the ones that work on hip mobility and strength. For example, do squats and deadlifts. These under-appreciated exercises do a lot of the back, and they will strengthen your posterior chain of postural muscles.

    February 21, 2013 at 13:05 | Report abuse | Reply
  16. mdonln

    I thought kangaroos carry things in front of them – in their pouch. That means we're not the only ones carrying in the front.

    February 21, 2013 at 14:09 | Report abuse | Reply
  17. Kris

    According to Christians...there is/was no evolution.

    Bones buried 100 feet deep got there last year, or were placed there by liberal conspirators.

    February 21, 2013 at 15:37 | Report abuse | Reply
  18. Heidi

    Could be, in addition to our sedentary lifestyles, that other animals don't have the emotional and mental pressures we have – STRESS. Stress causes a lot of tension.

    February 21, 2013 at 16:34 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Pete

      You mean like the constant fear of a lion pouncing on you? I'd find that stressful.

      February 21, 2013 at 23:30 | Report abuse |
  19. Cted

    The human body is poorly designed all around – same pipe for food and air is not a good design but it made sense for fish back in the day when the )2 came from water passing over gills so we are stuck with it., just with small modifications.

    February 21, 2013 at 16:40 | Report abuse | Reply
    • sqeptiq

      Same place for sex and liquid waste removal? Poor design.

      February 22, 2013 at 21:16 | Report abuse |
  20. msadr

    article is nonsense. scoliosis is not limited to humanity. Millions of women have given birth without any help. Cats, dogs and other mammals have hip and spine problems, as well as sprains and other orthopedic injuries. Our body mechanics is just as sound as any other creature.

    February 21, 2013 at 20:48 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Daniel

      Actually, up to 200 years ago, before modern medice help with assited and natural births, the number 1 cause of female death throughout history was giving birth

      February 22, 2013 at 19:28 | Report abuse |
    • SixDegrees

      "Millions of women have given birth without any help."

      Sure. And million have died giving birth, too. You don't have to travel far at all in time – the first half of the 20th century in America – or place – pretty much anywhere in today's Third World – to find that death during childbirth can be depressingly commonplace.

      February 23, 2013 at 07:37 | Report abuse |
    • dee

      ur right masddar, I been following the mia foundation, who currently has a dog w. severe scoliosis. I have seen videos of a dog named max who has it. that professor needs to read more. check out themiafoundation.com or on facebook

      February 23, 2013 at 14:11 | Report abuse |
  21. Pete

    Shoes are the cause of a lot of back, leg, and foot pains (As you made the reference to Daniel Lieberman's group). Shoes should move with the foot, have flexibility, lack cushioning, and NOT give any arch support (all contrary to what you may have been told). Arch support weakens the foot and puts pressure in incorrect places. Barefoot is best if possible. Did you know shoes actually reshape the foot into an unnatural state? They aren't meant to be narrow and pointy.

    February 21, 2013 at 23:18 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Kim Wells

      Less back pain and better feet – Yes! more reasons to go barefoot. My husband's going to hate that.

      February 22, 2013 at 03:30 | Report abuse |
  22. Mr. Massa

    Dang it, I was gonna blame Jesus...

    February 21, 2013 at 23:29 | Report abuse | Reply
    • I just saw Jesus!

      He repo'd my Harley.

      February 22, 2013 at 11:21 | Report abuse |
  23. Java

    Evolution or not, nobody has actually seen it happen. A human as has always been a human. A dog has always been a dog. What about breeds? So the outside looks different, a dog has always been a dog. Out of the the evidence the worlds best evolutionist have presented, I have yet to see any link between what was and what is. What I have seen however, is adaptation. That is NOT evolution. Or is it? Presenting that people of ancient times had foot and back problems is NO evidence of evolution. God can not be proven or dis proven. Nor can evolution. It's a theory. To believe as fact is a lie. You people on both side of the argument need to stop accepting what your told as fact and look at it how it is. Theory.

    February 23, 2013 at 04:27 | Report abuse | Reply
    • SixDegrees

      You're not looking hard enough. It is not at all uncommon for new species to be seen arising through evolution, including a new species of plant in Britain that was noted just a few years ago and has indisputably arisen through the evolutionary process.

      God isn't going to be very happy when he discovers you're not using the eyes and brain he gave you.

      February 23, 2013 at 07:35 | Report abuse |
  24. Desert duck

    Are you kidding? evolution has still to be proven as fact, and yet yall still swear by it. where are the scientists that have actual intelligence? show the world proof that god doesn't exist, and I'll show you infallible evidence that you wasted money on a degree to support an idea that the creator of did not even believe himself.

    February 23, 2013 at 07:51 | Report abuse | Reply
    • jiggy g

      So says the person who uses the "word" yall in a response. Not being able to prove that something does not exist does not make it so. Can you prove that magic doesn't exist? How about the flying spaghetti monster? Can you prove that the world is not run by alien robot ski instructors? You can't, well then it must be true. Better yet, can YOU prove that the "creator" does exist?

      February 24, 2013 at 17:51 | Report abuse |
    • jiggy g

      Also, gravity has not been "proven as fact". I'll be waiting you you to disprove that as well.

      February 24, 2013 at 17:53 | Report abuse |
    • Poisson Volant

      To echo jiggy, no one has ever seen gravity but there's still the Theory of Gravity, ditto for electrons and the Theory of Electromagnetism. So if they're "only theories", Duck, would you mind (a) putting your finger in a 220V socket and then (b) standing 3 ft from the edge of a cliff and walking 5 ft forward?

      February 24, 2013 at 19:19 | Report abuse |
  25. LogicNotHuff

    Evolution ... the BIG LIE WITH NO EVIDENCE THAT STANDS UP TO PEER REVIEW!! Evolution.... the invention of Satan.

    February 23, 2013 at 09:54 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Poisson Volant

      Evolution was going on long before there were peer-reviewed journals and will be going on long after. It has nothing to do with what any of us "believe". It's there and it's demonstrable. .

      February 24, 2013 at 19:10 | Report abuse |
    • UncleBenny

      The best evidence that evolution does not always involve progress is people like LogicNotHuff.

      March 1, 2013 at 18:02 | Report abuse |
  26. Stroso

    The funny things is, we currently possess the ability to speed this whole process up, by at least an order of magnitude. Why wait for evolution to meander, causing us to languish in an extrodinarily long game of trial and error when we can actively select against our worst attributes, both physical and mental? What's more moral, actively weeding out genetic defects, and pesky little malformations that lead to larger, protracted problmes, or tinkering with our own genetic sequence?

    I can guess.

    February 23, 2013 at 10:40 | Report abuse | Reply
  27. CJ87

    Neither evolution nor Religion have been proven by peer review, though there is a preponderance of evidence that Christ walked the earth, performed miracles, died, rose and appeared to thousands of people right after his death. I choose to believe in Christ as the son of God, it is something I can bet my life on. And, my afterlife. Do I believe in the fallacy that there is definitive difference between evolution and Christianity, and that I must choose sides? No. I only need to focus on living my life with God in it every day. Do I believe God directs evolution? You betcha.

    February 23, 2013 at 13:24 | Report abuse | Reply
    • noone

      If you think evolution can be "directed", you don't get what evolution is. The whole idea is at its core a blind, undirected process. That's the very essence of the theory– it is a process that has no intelligence or particular "goal". It happens because science.

      February 24, 2013 at 18:17 | Report abuse |
    • CJ87

      It depends on if you believe if evolution is truly random or not. I'm amazed at how one law of physics is that things tend toward mass entropy, but evolution demonstrates that species evolve into more complex and elegant organisms. Random?

      February 24, 2013 at 21:57 | Report abuse |
    • Poisson Volant

      Not exactly, CJ. Evolution doesn't necessarily tend to more complex and "elegant". It tends towards what in some manner can survive better. And remember there are lots of dead ends, mistakes, throwbacks and who knows what else along the way, plus many forms of life like trilobites that were very elegant and successful for far longer than we humans have been but eventually were superseded by something else.

      I'm glad you at least used the word "tend". Entropy does tend (or trend, if you prefer) towards less complexity but only in the macro sense. There's nothing in entropy that precludes "clumps" with higher organization at a local level. For an everyday example consider how the wind mostly stirs up whatever's in its path to be more chaotic, yet there can be local places where leaves collect into a nice neat little pile. Just because we humans create similar piles by using rakes doesn't imply that the wind has any "intent" to do the same.

      February 25, 2013 at 00:16 | Report abuse |
  28. Loki-23

    Here all this time I was thinking that our ancestors had the biomechanics thing bascially worked out of necessity. That it was modern human's creation of chairs and shoes and obesity that made for back, knee and foot troubles.

    ...right, Evolution has no evidence. Certainly never seen any kinds of mutations. Certainly never in bacteria or viruses. Let alone over generations in some families. Nope. No proof of evolution anywhere.

    February 23, 2013 at 15:57 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Melissa

      Actually if you know anything about evolution, you know that it has tons of evidence. You not liking it because it is in opposition to your lying ignorant religious views makes YOU the wrong one.

      February 23, 2013 at 22:45 | Report abuse |
    • Poisson Volant

      Uh, I think the comment was satirical.

      RWRN's seem to believe that if they can't see or feel something in this world it doesn't exist. But something in the next world is a completely different matter :)

      February 24, 2013 at 18:43 | Report abuse |
  29. ges

    It´s insane that we use the false theory of evolution to explain everything.
    Human beings did not evolve from animals.

    February 23, 2013 at 22:28 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Melissa

      Yes, actually they did. You just don't like it ges. Grow up.

      February 23, 2013 at 22:42 | Report abuse |
  30. Melissa

    So much for this idiotic idea that the human body is so "perfect" that the religious people want us to believe. The human body is far far from perfect.

    February 23, 2013 at 22:42 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Poisson Volant

      If there were truly intelligent design I wouldn't be bald and my face would look like George Clooney's.

      February 24, 2013 at 19:23 | Report abuse |
  31. Correctlycenter

    All that Evolution will produce is lies...

    February 24, 2013 at 16:40 | Report abuse | Reply
  32. Bubba

    Actually, evolution is known to be a fact.
    The theory of evolution, is based on the study of the facts as currently known.
    Science has a different standard for "theory" than that used in the common venacular......

    February 24, 2013 at 18:34 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Poisson Volant

      Thank you! It's a sad commentary on the state of education in this country that so many people are clueless about the scientific meaning of the word "theory".

      Bluntly, anyone who starts their objections with the phrase "It's only a theory ..." has immediately forfeited their place in the discussion because they have no understanding of the terminology.

      February 24, 2013 at 19:15 | Report abuse |
  33. Poisson Volant

    So by implication we're not animals too? Guess it's time to redefine terms like mammal, primate, chordate and oviparous.

    You DO know what they mean, right?

    February 24, 2013 at 18:46 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Poisson Volant

      Oops. That was supposed to be in response to jes ...

      February 24, 2013 at 19:12 | Report abuse |
  34. Poisson Volant

    Nah, sqeptiq. That part of the body was clearly designed by a low-bid civil engineering firm. Why else would there be a toxic waste stream routed through the middle of a recreational area?

    February 24, 2013 at 19:26 | Report abuse | Reply
  35. J KOURI

    There are so many inaccuracies in this article (i.e. scoliosis is NOT unique to the human species, etc.) such that it definitely should not be published on the CNN Health site and linked to on the CNN home page! I would predict that Dr. Gupta would be very disappointed if he actually read this.

    February 25, 2013 at 03:46 | Report abuse | Reply
  36. Babu G. Ranganathan

    ONLY LIMITED EVOLUTION POSSIBLE IN NATURE

    All real evolution in nature is within limits. The genes already exist for micro-evolution (variations within a biological kind such as varieties of dogs, cats, horses, cows, etc.), but not for macro-evolution (variations across biological kinds such as from sea sponge to human). The unthinking environment has no ability to design or program entirely new genes. Only variations of already existing genes and traits are possible. A dog will always be a dog no matter how many varieties come into being.

    Another problem for macro-evolution is the issue of survival of the fittest. How can a partially evolved species be fit for survival? A partially evolved trait or organ that is not complete and fully functioning from the start will be a liability to a species, not a survival asset. Plants and animals in the process of macro-evolution would be unfit for survival.

    Imagine an evolving fish having part fins and part feet, with the fins evolving into feet. Where’s the survival advantage? It can't use either fins or feet efficiently. These fish exist only on automobile bumper stickers!

    In fact, how could species have survived at all while their vital organs were supposedly evolving? Survival of the fittest (aka natural selection) may explain how species survive, due to minor variations and adaptations to the environment, but not how they originated. Natural selection merely “selects” from biological variations that are possible. It’s not a creative force.

    Genetic and biological similarities between species are no proof of common ancestry. Such similarities are better and more logically explained due to a common Genetic Engineer or Designer (yes, God) who designed similar functions for similar purposes in various species. Genetic information, like other forms of information, cannot arise by chance, so it's more rational to believe that DNA or genetic similarities between species are due to intelligent design.

    What about "Junk" DNA? The latest science shows that "Junk DNA" isn't junk after all! It's we who were ignorant of how useful these segments of DNA really are. Recent scientific research published in scientific journals such as Nature and RNA has revealed that the "non-coding" segments of DNA are essential in regulating gene expression (i.e. how, when, and where genes are expressed in the body).

    All the fossils that have been used to support human evolution have ultimately been found to be either hoaxes, non-human, or human, but not human and non-human.

    All species in the fossil record and living are complete, fully-formed, and fully functional. There's no macro-evolution in nature.

    Visit my newest Internet sites, THE SCIENCE SUPPORTING CREATION and WAR AMONG EVOLUTIONISTS (2nd Edition)

    Sincerely,
    Babu G. Ranganathan
    (B.A. Bible/Biology)

    Author of the popular Internet article, TRADITIONAL DOCTRINE OF HELL EVOLVED FROM GREEK ROOTS

    *I have given successful lectures (with question and answer period afterwards) defending creation before evolutionist science faculty and students at various colleges and universities. I've been privileged to be recognized in the 24th edition of Marquis "Who's Who in The East" for my writings on religion and science.

    February 26, 2013 at 10:58 | Report abuse | Reply
  37. Babu G. Ranganathan

    APES ARE QUITE COMFORTABLE IN HOW THEY WALK, just as humans are quite comfortable in how they walk. Even a slight change in the position of a muscle or bone, for either, would be excruciatingly painful and would not be an advantage for survival. There's no hard evidence that humans evolved from ape-like creatures anymore than there's hard evidence that apes evolved from four-legged-pawed dog-like creatures. All the fossils that have been used to support human evolution have been found to be either hoaxes, non-human, or human, but not non-human and human (i.e. Neanderthal Man was discovered later to be fully human). Textbooks and museums still continue to display examples and illustrations supporting human evolution which most evolutionists have rejected and no longer support. Many diagrams of ape-man creatures over the years were reconstructed according to evolutionary interpretations from disputable bones that have now been discredited but still being taught in school textbooks.

    Please read and share my popular Internet articles: MISSING LINKS THAT NEVER WERE, NATURAL LIMITS OF EVOLUTION, WAR AMONG EVOLUTIONISTS, EVOLUTION AND BIBLE CANNOT MIX, HOW FORENSIC SCIENCE REFUTES ATHEISM, DOES GOD PARTICLE EXPLAIN UNIVERSE'S ORIGIN? NO HALF-EVOLVED DINOSAURS! ARE FOSSILS REALLY MILLIONS OF YEAS OLD?

    Visit my newest Internet site: THE SCIENCE SUPPORTING CREATION

    Sincerely,
    Babu G. Ranganathan*
    (B.A. theology/biology)

    Author of the popular Internet article, TRADITIONAL DOCTRINE OF HELL EVOLVED FROM GREEK ROOTS

    I have had the privilege of being recognized in the 24th edition of Marquis "Who's Who In The East" for my writings on religion and science. I have given successful lectures (with question and answer period afterward) before evolutionist science faculty and students at various colleges/universities.

    February 26, 2013 at 10:59 | Report abuse | Reply

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