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Weird science: Kitty litter increases risk of suicide?
July 2nd, 2012
04:47 PM ET

Weird science: Kitty litter increases risk of suicide?

A small subset of suicide attempts may be linked to an infection that starts in the litter box.  A new study suggests an association between Toxoplasma gondii and suicide attempts among women.

Interesting finding, to be sure, but how does one even begin to test a theory like this? Why in the world would anyone posit that kitty litter could be related to suicide attempts?

As it turns out, about one-third of the population is walking around right now with latent toxoplasma infection.  Most people will never know they have it - and most will not attempt suicide as a result of it. But the presence of T. gondii among women who attempted suicide raises interesting questions.

Those questions led senior study author, Dr. Teodor Postolache, to find out more. Postolache said he was at first puzzled by studies suggesting low-grade activity in the immune systems of suicide victims.

"We were puzzled," said Postolache, associate professor of psychiatry and director of the Mood and Anxiety Program at the University of Maryland School of Medicine.  "We wanted to know what could contribute to that activation."

As he later discovered, T. gondii is associated with schizophrenia and, in other studies, associated with suicide.

So he and colleagues decided to take a closer look at a group in Denmark, where they already had an ongoing allergy study, and where patient data is meticulously kept.  Their T. gondii study was conducted among 45,788 women in Denmark between 1992 and 1995.

What Postolache and colleagues found is that women infected with T. gondii had one-and-a-half times higher risk of attempting suicide when compared with women with no infection.  According to the study, published Monday in the Archives of General Psychiatry, "the risk seemed to increase with increasing... antibody level."

So, the more antibodies found in the blood reacting to T. gondii, the higher the risk of a suicide attempt.

Postolache tempers the finding by pointing out that the chances of having T. gondii infection and never attempting suicide is much higher than attempting it.

"This is a very prevalent parasite, a very successful parasite, that affects one-third of the world population," said Postolache, a senior consultant on suicide prevention for the Baltimore VA Medical Center.  "One-third of them are not attempting suicide."

True, but another scientist says that results of this study represent the "tip of the iceberg" in terms of answering broader questions, like could infections like T. gondii contribute to mental disorders?

"There's a strong association between certain types of infection at certain times in life and various psychiatric problems," said Dr. Charles Raison, associate professor of psychiatry at the University of Arizona in Tucson.

"We have these simple ideas about infection and illness like you get the influenza virus and then get the flu. One bug equals one illness. What we now know is it's much more complicated than that. Infections can produce a lot of secondary effects," he added.

In the context of the current study, that means T. gondii may not be causally linked to increased suicide risk, but a more global and complex process may begin with infection.

"It appears that toxoplasmosis does things that unbalance emotional mental functioning," said Raison, CNNHealth.com's mental health expert.  "Depending on other risk factors, maybe it makes you depressed, maybe it makes you impulsive."

But before you usher your kitty (along with its offending litter) out of the pet door, consider that those (many and complex) other factors - not just the T. gondii - are likely at work in the mind of a person who ultimately attempts suicide.

"All those factors may interact with or moderate the T. gondii," said Postolache.  "Investigating that will be important."


soundoff (391 Responses)
  1. jwedde

    Kitties and kitty litter are just a result of lonliness, loliness is why they killed themselves.

    July 3, 2012 at 15:35 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Klr

      I was just going to say that, I think it's an association that could be based more on social isolation and those women tending towards owning cats...thereby just happening to have a higher exposure to T. gondii

      July 3, 2012 at 17:27 | Report abuse |
    • Elizabeth

      While this is true, I read an article by the same scientist that discovered the West Nile virus in the U.S.: if the human immune system is overloaded by an infection such as strep, sometimes it attacks the brain. That is, the immune system itself can cause behavior changes. It isn't vaccines for viruses that cause this reaction, but having bacterial infections (such as strep or T. plasmosis) that starts the immune system attacking the brain. Much more research is needed: diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (autoimmune diseases) are known to attack the joints, but their effect on the brain needs much more evaluation. Even so, cats keep many diseases away if they frighten mice; people shouldn't just get rid of their kitties.

      July 3, 2012 at 18:28 | Report abuse |
  2. jon

    This is, without a doubt, the craziest story that I have ever heard. Get a life!

    July 3, 2012 at 15:41 | Report abuse | Reply
    • lornee

      ...and the earth is flat, right Jon?

      July 3, 2012 at 15:56 | Report abuse |
    • Pro Death

      What's crazier this story or the hundreds of thousands of dollars the government funded to do it?

      July 3, 2012 at 16:16 | Report abuse |
    • Lanfear

      I agree. complete waste of time. Maybe they should be more conerned about the obesity epidemic and focus their studies around how we don't NEED to eat as much as we do.

      July 3, 2012 at 16:46 | Report abuse |
    • uglygosling

      Somebody has too much time on their hands!

      July 3, 2012 at 16:49 | Report abuse |
    • MITPhD

      Worse than any funds used for this research is Pro Death intentionally lying to advance his or her political agenda (or more likely, the agenda of the superpac paying Pro Death to post such nonsense). There is absolutely no evidence in the story or in the post that "hundreds of thousands of GOVERNMENT money was used to fund this study). I think Pro Death should think about the 30 pieces of silver he's getting to betray his fellow citizens and then do the honorable thing.

      July 3, 2012 at 17:43 | Report abuse |
    • kat

      Useless study, eh? Because no one cares about the potential effects of an infection/immune reactions on the brain. No relationship to serious things like autism at all. Jeeze. American educational system in action.

      July 3, 2012 at 22:24 | Report abuse |
    • Cynthia

      I just took Microbiology last year & this type of thing is definitely possible d/t we already know of similar actions of parasites. You need to get an education!

      July 3, 2012 at 23:02 | Report abuse |
    • KJC

      Every single time there is a science article, there is someone stating that the "government" funded it all. How about the students that pay tuition at that university? Or the companies who give grants to university researchers? Come on, people.

      July 6, 2012 at 15:51 | Report abuse |
    • puddytat

      ditto

      July 8, 2012 at 20:37 | Report abuse |
  3. Don Piano

    OH NO

    You mean that was NOT Almond Roca??? I thought it tasted weird...

    July 3, 2012 at 15:48 | Report abuse | Reply
  4. michigan bob

    Maybe I can get more cats for my ex?

    July 3, 2012 at 15:49 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Kandi

      I'd like to give a cat to my fat smelly neighbor.

      July 3, 2012 at 17:32 | Report abuse |
    • Seamusgirl

      i wanted to send my ex a large bos of tylenol and a case of beer.

      July 6, 2012 at 14:39 | Report abuse |
  5. IreneN

    OK, we found another excuse for human problems. Case closed, it's no one's fault. Sleep tight, babies, we won't hurt your feelings. How comforting, fully in line with raising generations with no responsibilities for anything and stuffing them with anti-depressants starting from the age of 10, maybe even earlier. Now cats are our worst enemies, right after Muslims :-) Never mind that owing a pet takes knowledge, basic hygiene and some adjustments. We are not used to such burden, we have rights, and it's still their fault. :-)))))))))) It is sad that instead some morons may just throw their animal to the pound after reading the article. Ignorant and irresponsible get scared in a flash.

    July 3, 2012 at 15:50 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Muslim Cat

      Muwahahahahahaaaa....

      July 3, 2012 at 15:51 | Report abuse |
    • Scott Pilgrim

      You fail to realize this is all part of their plan. Now when your cat smothers you, the police will see your post, and realize you were high strung and offed yourself. In fact, my post is your only saving grace. You're welcome.

      July 3, 2012 at 16:08 | Report abuse |
    • IreneN

      Scott, was it wrong with you? Why is it so important to you to prove me miserable? If you did indeed study psychology you should know the signs you are showing... My hubby will skin you alive if you hurt my cat :-)

      July 3, 2012 at 16:23 | Report abuse |
    • Ded Nugent

      The only person talking about "throwing their animal to the pound" is you, Irene. You either underestimate the intelligence of the general public or overestimate your own.

      July 3, 2012 at 17:59 | Report abuse |
  6. Don Piano

    Soft kitty, warm kitty, little ball of fur...happy kitty sleepy kitty OH JESUS NO PLEASE DON'T KITTY NO

    July 3, 2012 at 15:50 | Report abuse | Reply
    • JuzClownin

      LMAO!

      August 29, 2012 at 17:18 | Report abuse |
  7. peacewalker

    It's not the kitty litter that drives you to suicide. It's the realization that you're so desperate for company that you're willing to keep a box full of poop in your house.

    July 3, 2012 at 15:55 | Report abuse | Reply
    • IreneN

      No poop that does not like animals will ever be kept in my house. Life proves that people who don't like animals are very selfish and heartless when it comes to humans as well. Does it sound strange to you that most volunteers for human causes I know have pets or don't have them only for true medical reasons?

      July 3, 2012 at 16:07 | Report abuse |
    • Lanfear

      Lol a box full of poop? It gets emptied, just like how you flush your own poop down the toilet. Besides, many cats go outside and do not require a littler box - my cat for example doesn't even use her litter box. The assumption that people with cats are "lonely and desperate" or whatever is just childish and ignorant. Did you ever think that maybe people just like cats? If I felt lonely I would get a dog anyways, not a cat, that would actually keep me busy and get me out of the house. If you don't like cats then fine, don't get one! No reason to knock those of us who do love their company.

      July 3, 2012 at 16:57 | Report abuse |
  8. Mariob195

    Way to much time on this guys hands..

    July 3, 2012 at 16:00 | Report abuse | Reply
  9. pete

    Didn't it occur to them that the kitty poop is the effect, not the cause? Young women who are depressed tend to have cats, Have to be careful with scientific studies not to confuse the cause with the effect.

    July 3, 2012 at 16:03 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Lanfear

      Awww pete hates his life so much that he has to come on a forum and knock people who like cats. how sad.

      July 3, 2012 at 16:59 | Report abuse |
    • Mr. Bones

      Yes, I'm sure you, some random internet commenter, thought of a something that these people, whose literal JOB is science (as in, science is what they make their living doing five days a week or more) did not. If only they'd'a asked you first! You coulda tol' 'em!

      Does it say cat litter is the ONLY channel through which this pathogen is contracted? If not, your whole hypothesis is invalid from square one.

      And I'm also sure that the actual, published study contains no more detail than the 700-word rundown posted on a news website's blog meant for general (fifth-grade reading-level) consumption. Because scientific studies are usually 500-700 words, you know. That happens in reality. There's nothing in the study that wasn't written here.

      No wonder so many people hate and fear science. They have zero idea what it is or how it works.

      July 3, 2012 at 17:23 | Report abuse |
    • kat

      Hear, hear, Mr. Bones.

      July 3, 2012 at 22:28 | Report abuse |
  10. knute

    does the whitehouse havve a cat?

    July 3, 2012 at 16:07 | Report abuse | Reply
  11. mybad

    does the white house have a cat

    July 3, 2012 at 16:08 | Report abuse | Reply
  12. Conscientia

    Pathogens can definitely affect animal behavior. That's been demonstrated again and again with various pathogen-host pairs. This story is not so far fetched.

    July 3, 2012 at 16:20 | Report abuse | Reply
  13. carlimann

    CNN, do you really have nothing else going on that you have to publish a study done in Denmark & published by the "ARCHIVES" of General Psychiatry? I think not. Please instead highlight all the dogs & cats across the Nation in KILL shelters who desperately need homes & if they are not homed, they will be killed for space! Another very timely, and actually USEFUL NEWS STORY needs to be done regarding what steps pet owners need to do to keep their pets safe & secure on the 4th of July– when kill shelters' stray & lost pet intake will rise 200% because of the stress of fireworks. Wow, just WOW at your irresponsible, purely inflammatory & completely unnecessary so-called "reporting." At a time when abuse of domestic pets is increasing drastically, this is a totally irresponsible "news" article to publish. My local news stations PICKED UP THIS STORY FROM CNN & ran it, & after much protest, they have pulled the story. In KY, we are seeing horrendous abuse cases against domestic dogs and cats, as well as a drastic increase in owner-surrenders to kill shelters & no one benefits from this so-called story in anyway. You'll note NO VETERINARIAN in anyway contributed to this article, so clearly, these are not "facts" that should be published so lightly. This story will only increase the likelihood of domestic animal abuse & dumping of owned pets at kill shelters. Please screen your reporting more carefully. You have now lost a long-time, previously very devoted viewer because of you decision to publish a purely sensational, under-researched article.

    July 3, 2012 at 16:28 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Erin

      Carlimann has many good points. Isn't there other story you could run instead of this one?

      July 3, 2012 at 16:48 | Report abuse |
    • heliocracy

      Yes, clearly science is wrong when I disagree with or fear its conclusions, and especially when a NON-VETERINARIAN says anything about animals...only VETS know about animals, that should be obvious to all! I clearly know more about every subject than those who foolishly devote their lives to the close and rigorous study of things, because, after all, knowledge is really just common sense that you can pick up by casually looking, like the FACT that the sun and moon revolve around the earth and that life is CLEARLY too complex to have arisen without a magical sky-god to make it happen. (Get over yourself).

      July 3, 2012 at 17:07 | Report abuse |
    • Chris

      What do you have against this scientific journal? Because its name contains the word "archives" doesn't mean its articles are outdated or not scientifically sound. Many scientific journals have this word in their name and publish excellent work.

      And as pointed out by another poster, non-vets can study animals, like non-MDs can study human diseases. Otherwise, what would you expect a PhD in biological or medical sciences (immunology, physiology, biochemistry, molecular biology, biophysics, genetics, etc...) to study?
      The public really needs to learn a little more about science and scientists.

      July 3, 2012 at 17:31 | Report abuse |
    • kat

      Why on earth would a vet contribute to an article about human immunobiology? You fail.

      July 3, 2012 at 22:32 | Report abuse |
  14. Jasmine

    oh so "crazy cat lady" name calling is true! I noticed that people who keep a lot of cats (especially feral cat colonies) aren't all up there. There is something off about them. Really. This makes sense.

    July 3, 2012 at 16:28 | Report abuse | Reply
  15. Pizza the Hutt

    They went cat siht crazy

    July 3, 2012 at 16:33 | Report abuse | Reply
  16. xfiler93

    cats, the enemy of mankind!!!

    July 3, 2012 at 16:35 | Report abuse | Reply
  17. abe

    it is so true my xwife tried to kill herself befor i met her her boyfrien was fredy the cat,,so the cat was a killer..:)

    July 3, 2012 at 16:41 | Report abuse | Reply
  18. Erin

    I thought for sure there would be about a million crazy cat lady jokes, but I don't see a one. Weird.

    July 3, 2012 at 16:46 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Erin

      Never mind, now that I'm going through the rest of the responses, I see a bunch.

      July 3, 2012 at 16:56 | Report abuse |
    • GeorgeBos95

      Of course there are a bunch ... low hanging fruit is hard to avoid.

      July 3, 2012 at 17:01 | Report abuse |
    • Lanfear

      not really any "jokes" per say... mostly people who are being serious. ignorant, but serious.

      July 3, 2012 at 17:01 | Report abuse |
  19. paulronco

    "So he and colleagues decided to take a closer look at a group in Denmark, where they already had an ongoing allergy study, and where patient data is meticulously kept."

    You mean they actually had an ongoing allergy study that we didn't have, and keep good records in that oppressive country with government-run healthcare and death panels?? The horror!

    July 3, 2012 at 16:54 | Report abuse | Reply
  20. GeorgeBos95

    "All those factors may interact with or moderate the T. gondii..." ... unless, of course, T. gondii is merely a marker, and not a catalyst. Or T. gondii mixed up with some other biochemicals in the bodies of some women generate an emotionally toxic stew.

    The moral of the story ... one more reason to avoid women with cats.

    July 3, 2012 at 16:59 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Lanfear

      I'm pretty sure most women wouldn't date you anyways, unless they were desperate or had a fetish for fat people.

      July 3, 2012 at 17:03 | Report abuse |
  21. Don Nanneman

    The headline linking toxoplasma to cat litter is a real disservice –the majority of human cases come through the dame route as majority of cat cases – eating under cooked infected meat. I do not know if there are any confirmed cases contracted through cat litter but I doubt it. the cat using the litter would have to have eaten infected raw meat, and the feces would have to have been in the litter for several days before the human came in contact with it.
    That said toxo has huge and weird effects ont the brain and behavior of infected rodents.

    July 3, 2012 at 17:06 | Report abuse | Reply
    • ravenh

      The number of veterinary technicians that test positive would indicate that contact with cat litter and feces would be a direct source of infection.

      July 6, 2012 at 12:34 | Report abuse |
  22. veterinary pathologist

    The only person to "posit that kitty litter could be related to suicide attempts" is the journalist, not the authors of the cited study. The study says that for lack of information, they could not control for exposure risk factors such consumption of raw or undercooked meat, incompletely washed fruits and vegetables, cleaning the cat litter box, and washing the kitchen knives infrequently after preparation of raw meat, prior to handling another food item. Poor and inaccurate reporting. The CDC website has some good basic information on toxoplasmosis risk factors if anyone wants more information.

    July 3, 2012 at 17:10 | Report abuse | Reply
  23. EMC

    DITTO:
    A veterinarian
    This is indeed a very irresponsible article. There are many ways to become infected with Toxoplasma gondii and exposure to cat feces is actually not the most common way that people are infected in the United States. Gardening and exposure to undercooked pork, and especially poor food handling when preparing pork is the most common way that people in the United States are infected. Also, you would have to EAT the cat feces to become infected, so good hand washing hygiene is all that is required to avoid T. gondii infection from cats. Your veterinarian can do a blood test to test your cats for T. gondii. Also, T. gondii infection is less common in indoor only cats than in cats that go outdoors (cats get it from eating mice). Please don't dump your cat from the terrible misinformation in this article!

    July 3, 2012 at 10:14

    July 3, 2012 at 17:18 | Report abuse | Reply
  24. Victor

    So they weren't crazy cat ladies at first, it was only after being exposed to the infection?

    July 3, 2012 at 17:22 | Report abuse | Reply
  25. Bonnie

    I have heard it all!!!! I have a cat and empty the litter tray at least every other day. I keep her healthy and feed her right. My cat stays inside and does not dine on mice or other rodents. So – do I have to start wearing a industrial strength gas mask and up-to-the-elbow gloves to handle her waist? I resent government funding for the likes of these "studies."

    July 3, 2012 at 17:29 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Chris

      The authors of the study (in the scientific journal) never said that. It was a an over-statement from the journalist to make the public want to read his article. Before believing what you read in such articles and blaming scientists for wasting taxpayer money, go to the original scientific publication and read their conclusions. They differ quite a bit from the "summary" found on CNN. But scientific papers are usually so long, full of details and cautious in their conclusions that few non-scientists want to read them and rather rely on a journalist to make them simpler and over the top.

      July 3, 2012 at 17:38 | Report abuse |
    • Lila

      i think it was done in Denmark and the conclusions are idiotic. With the same info they could have concluded people who prepare and eat meat have a higher suicide rate. When it comes to T.gondii they always zoom in on cats and women in their studies like there aren't any other options.

      July 3, 2012 at 17:47 | Report abuse |
  26. GOPlies

    This explains why my wife's cat committed suicide

    July 3, 2012 at 17:33 | Report abuse | Reply
  27. Bonnie

    Excuse the "oops" ; that should be AN industrial-strength gas mask.

    July 3, 2012 at 17:33 | Report abuse | Reply
  28. Lila

    Why do people believe lonely people have cats? I'm happily married with dogs, cats and a bird. Had them all my life along with horses, chickens and a goat when I was a kid. Humans have been living with cats and various other domesticated animals for thousands of years. That's normal.

    July 3, 2012 at 17:36 | Report abuse | Reply
  29. znznznzn

    while toxoplasma is a common parasite of cats and is shed in cat feces, the most common manner of human infection is ingestion of undercooked meat (not necessarily cat meat.) so give the cats a break...probably half of the people walking around latently infected don't even own cats...

    July 3, 2012 at 17:42 | Report abuse | Reply
  30. Susan

    So...the women in Denmark need to stop using their hands to scoop the poop. And learn to wash afterwards.

    July 3, 2012 at 17:46 | Report abuse | Reply
  31. perennial2

    Dogs and toxicarias are a more widespread and greater health concern.

    July 3, 2012 at 18:02 | Report abuse | Reply
  32. Parker

    who cleans their cats litter box when they're depressed? I barely get out of bed.

    July 3, 2012 at 18:21 | Report abuse | Reply
  33. orion7x

    I get suicidal if the liter box doesnt get changed.

    July 3, 2012 at 18:25 | Report abuse | Reply
  34. Grumpymeic

    I have nine cats, all indoor-only, house is spotless and clean, and I'm happy as a clam. No shortage of kitty therapy in my house!

    July 3, 2012 at 20:23 | Report abuse | Reply
  35. Lashae Darby

    I DON'T BELIEVE THAT ONE BIT. I HAVE A BEUTIFUL RAGDOLL SIMESE CAT, AND HE'S WONDERFUL.

    July 4, 2012 at 01:02 | Report abuse | Reply
  36. Michele

    It's been known for years that T. gondii affects behavior in rats and people, women differently then men. I read about this years
    ago in Psychology Today. It makes rats less afraid of cats, thus making them easier to catch them. I've forgotten now what the specific effects are on women and men, but this article does not surprise me at all. I also would not be surprised if other parasitic organisms were found also have an effect on the host's behavior.

    July 4, 2012 at 03:03 | Report abuse | Reply
  37. Rosa Michelle

    Finally, I found a safe way of getting rid of my husband's girl friend :)

    July 4, 2012 at 04:31 | Report abuse | Reply
  38. Melinda

    Why pick on the Cat, there are other ways you can become infected, here is the list of other ways (from a link in your article):
    Toxoplasmosis is found in humans worldwide, and in many species of animals and birds. Cats are the definitive host of the parasite.

    Human infection may result from:

    Blood transfusions or solid organ transplants


    Carelessly handling cat litter, which can lead to accidental consumption of infectious particles


    Eating contaminated soil


    Eating raw or undercooked meat (lamb, pork, and beef)

    July 4, 2012 at 11:03 | Report abuse | Reply
  39. Dan Duong

    Sources please? I would like to read the paper incorporating these claims.

    July 4, 2012 at 20:44 | Report abuse | Reply
  40. medschoolkid

    This parasite causes behavioral modifications when it infects animals as the intermediate host. It has been shown that when mice are infected they become less afraid of cats and possibly attracted to cat urine. If it has these kind of effects in mice the effects on humans become much more believable. However most T. gondii infections in humans, the parasite uses humans as a definitive host, not an intermediate. In this case the brain is not infected. The intermediate infection can only come from contact with cat feces. But this could be as simple as your cat using the litter box then jumping on the counter, thus infecting the surface.

    July 5, 2012 at 14:43 | Report abuse | Reply
  41. Fishrus

    May the Higgs boson have mercy on anyone who gets the bulk of his/her news from the Internet!

    July 6, 2012 at 07:53 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Hogan's Goat

      I pray to the Higgs Boson because I heard on the internet that it was the God Particle.

      July 6, 2012 at 07:56 | Report abuse |
  42. Matt

    now we all know why the weird cat lady is so weird..

    July 6, 2012 at 14:03 | Report abuse | Reply
  43. matttt

    wheres that guy from canada? he gotta know all this and more on them

    July 7, 2012 at 07:46 | Report abuse | Reply
  44. ISABEL

    THIS IS SO CRAZY!!!!!! BLAME THE SUICIDE ON THE CRAP BOX!!!!! HE MUST OF WENT TO MICKEY MOUSE UNIVERSITY!!!!

    July 7, 2012 at 11:50 | Report abuse | Reply
  45. kleptiko

    As a cat, I object this article, which is inflammatory and obtuse. I'm calling my lawyer.

    July 7, 2012 at 14:43 | Report abuse | Reply
  46. Kathy

    I agree with klepto.

    July 9, 2012 at 14:13 | Report abuse | Reply
  47. indjija

    I get pleasure from, cause I discovered exactly what I was looking for. You have ended my 4 day lengthy hunt! God Bless you man. Have a nice day. Bye

    July 18, 2012 at 13:53 | Report abuse | Reply
  48. Lee

    The article discusses possible connections between some mental illness and toxoplasmosis, a disease caused by a parasite found in cat feces. There is no connection between cat litter and mental illness.
    A few items for your consideration.
    -The cats do not get the parasite from using cat litter.
    -The risk is not from the litter itself, but the feces in the litter.
    -The parasite sometime found in cat feces enters cats who eat infected animals found in the wild, or raw or undercooked infected meat.
    -Litter packages warns to wash hands thoroughly after handling used cat litter. Special protections are suggested for those who are pregnant or have suppressed immune systems.
    -For more information and links, go to http://www.sorptive.org/content/page08.shtml or http://www.cdc.gov:

    July 20, 2012 at 13:58 | Report abuse | Reply
  49. Ricki Spindler

    Thank you for another informative blog. The place else may just I am getting that kind of information written in such a perfect manner? I've a mission that I'm simply now operating on, and I have been on the glance out for such information.

    July 31, 2012 at 18:45 | Report abuse | Reply
  50. Dayvon

    WOW this is not the first time I've seen a post similiar to this one. I have a website in which i review the best cat litter boxes http://www.catlitterboxandgenie.com/. This post was very informative. Where could I find more of your posts? Thanks a lot and keep up the great info

    September 20, 2012 at 20:03 | Report abuse | Reply
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