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Stuttering linked to genetics, motor control
February 19th, 2011
05:14 PM ET

Stuttering linked to genetics, motor control

Jennifer McGuire remembers how, as a child, she would order only certain things at restaurants because they would be easier to say. McGuire, 30, has stuttered for as long as she can remember.

"Stuttering has colored my whole life," she said Saturday. "Only recently has it not been the first thing I think about when I get up in the morning and the last thing before I go to bed."

Stuttering typically starts around 2 to 4 years of age, after the stutterer already had learned language, which is why legendary psychoanalysist Sigmund Freud thought it had something to do with parenting or something else in the environment.

But scientists have found copious evidence that biological mechanisms in the brain can explain stuttering. They presented some of the more recent findings at the American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting in Washington, D.C.

Stuttering is the central issue in "The King's Speech," nominated for Oscars in 12 categories at next weekend's 83rd Annual Academy Awards. The film hits home for many people who have lived with a stutter.

About half of stutterers have a clear family history of this speech disorder, said Dennis Drayna of the National Institutes of Health. But Drayna thinks this is in an underestimate for the genetic influence.

Drayna's research on the genetics of stuttering has shown that genes that appear to be involved all control some aspect of cell metabolism. The mutations linked with it are also associated with genes for rare childhood diseases called mucolipidosis type 2 and type 3. Those who suffer type 2 typically don't live to the age of 10, those with type 3 live only into young adulthood. But it has been noted anecdotally that those who live to age 7 or 8 with type 2 often don't ever develop the ability to speak.

The brains of people who stutter seem to have particular signatures in function and structure. Luc De Nil of the University of Toronto and colleagues used functional magnetic resonance imaging to look at what's going on in the brains of children and adults who stutter. It seems that the speech-motor control region of the frontal cortex, the premotor cortex and the cerebellum are all involved, while there is an underactivation in the auditory cortex. There are also clear differences in stuttering adults and children in terms of brain anatomy: the gray matter cortex and white matter intercortical connections appear different in them. These underlying structural differences appear to explain at least some of the functional differences seen in these individuals. Moreover, patients who develop a stutter after a stroke often have lesions in the same areas of the brain implicated in stuttering, De Nil has found.

Stuttering also appears to be related to motor coordination. In an experiment with children, De Nil's group also found that children who stutter have more problems learning sequences of finger-tapping than those who do not have the speech disorder. Those who stutter have more difficulties with the timing of sequential movements.

This seems to be a problem in movements of the mouth and jaw, previous research has shown in people who stutter.

"We’ve been able to show that the discoordinations are present even when people who stutter speak fluently," he said.

It's possible that because motor coordination and stuttering are linked, the degree of a patient's motor deficiency may predict how well he or she will respond to stuttering treatment, De Nil said. This idea needs more research, however.

In as many as 75% to 80% of stuttering cases, a child will recover spontaneously from stuttering, and there's no clear reason why some do better than others, said Anne Smith, researcher at Purdue University. Parents should try to help their children immediately, rather than ignoring the problem, if they pick up on speech difficulties.

The most painful part of stuttering is blocking: When you open your mouth to try to say something and nothing comes out, she said. This can lead to a lot of stress. What stuttering does to a person’s self-confidence and freedom to speak is depicted well in "The King's Speech," De Nil said.

As for McGuire, she is now pregnant, and is paying close attention to the research regarding genetics and brain characteristics in stuttering. She finds it exciting.

"It would be great if my child ends up being a person who stutters, but is able to have it be less mysterious, and have access to effective therapies and an earlier stage in life."


soundoff (123 Responses)
  1. John

    I began stuttering at the age of 7 when my 2nd grade teachers tried to convert me from left-handed to right-handed writing. It was speach-therapy at noon, and writing on the board for an hour after school. I always thought this was mixed brain dominance, but it would also fit in with the current motor center theory. This indeed wrecked havoc with my life until I forced myself to mostly overcome it by becoming a teaching assistant in grad school. Sink or Swim. Give presentations.

    February 19, 2011 at 18:05 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Dirk

      I stopped studdering when I realized I was just really nervous

      February 19, 2011 at 19:33 | Report abuse |
    • Glynne1964

      Well...I could've told the world this! It's not brain surgery! Yes, stuttering is in the genetics! 2 of my brothers stutter regularly & 2 others are like me...we stutter when we get tired/anxious/frustrated. Things that help: breathe, think & speak aloud often. I used to read aloud cause when you are reading aloud you think more about what is said & you "feel the rhythm" of speaking. That's how James Earl Jones battled stuttering to become a voice millions recognize. Just don't give up!

      February 20, 2011 at 00:55 | Report abuse |
    • Frenchy

      Same thing with my grand-dad, John, for both him and his twin. Their parents forced them to be "righties" when they were natural "lefties"– it was considered wicked to write with your left hand. Grandpa and Uncle eventually did their own thing and the stuttering stopped, and no other stutterers have been in the family. Kind of blows the genetic theory out of the water.

      February 20, 2011 at 03:42 | Report abuse |
    • lance corporal

      yes frenchy your observation of just your family definitely blows the scientific study of many families out of the water......... I have very mild stuttering, I also have handedness issues, I had more stuttering issues in early adolescence but it largely subsided and now is rare and very mild, like many things I don't doubt there may be genetic and/or an environmental causes, most likely varying levels of genetic predisposition and perhaps environmental triggers, and genetics is weird, things can be dormant for generations and then pop up.
      +++ why do some people think their untrained uncontrolled individual observations trump science??

      February 20, 2011 at 12:49 | Report abuse |
  2. Jay

    I stutter and I am offended by your remark. You must be real proud of yourself a**hole!!!

    February 19, 2011 at 18:08 | Report abuse | Reply
    • ricky

      Jayyyyy....that wwwwwwwolllldddd bbbeeeee aaaaaa.............hhhhhhhhhhhhhhooooooooolllllleeeeeeee

      February 19, 2011 at 21:32 | Report abuse |
  3. Enoch100

    not nice, dane.....

    February 19, 2011 at 18:09 | Report abuse | Reply
  4. gandalf101

    i stuttered at an early age(about 8 or 9) the remedy i was given was to take my time and organize my thoughts before i opened my mouth. i have not stuttered since then. i may be the exception to a rule but it worked for me

    February 19, 2011 at 18:21 | Report abuse | Reply
  5. Sallie

    It is genetics, several generations of stutterers in my family. One thing about it though, it's not related to ignorance, like Dane!

    February 19, 2011 at 18:29 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Jo

      Same here. It can be very debilitating. And when young, children are cruel, as some adults. You hope when you get older you you don't have to deal with the ignorance. Obviously, we still do.

      February 19, 2011 at 18:41 | Report abuse |
  6. Andy

    Dane,
    You are simply an idiot and wasting our air.

    February 19, 2011 at 18:31 | Report abuse | Reply
  7. Andy

    I have a sense of humor. Moronic comments are not humor.

    February 19, 2011 at 18:33 | Report abuse | Reply
  8. Brian

    I want to be just like you so I'll laugh at my own jokes. And someday, hopefully, I too will have everyone in my life walk away from me because I lack a basic sense of humanity and decency so I can die alone. All alone. But you're funny man! No one can deny how funny you think you are. Stuttering helped teach me compassion and I am thankful for it because it means I will never be like you.

    February 19, 2011 at 18:34 | Report abuse | Reply
  9. Jo

    Loser.

    February 19, 2011 at 18:38 | Report abuse | Reply
  10. Pierce

    Dane, you must have so many shortcomings (i.e. 'small') of your own that the only way you feel better is to make fun of others.
    There's nothing funny about it.

    February 19, 2011 at 18:41 | Report abuse | Reply
  11. Dan

    I stuttered as a kid until high school. Over those years, speaking out would be incredibly tough and I would wonder if I could speak up like other people around me. Eventually, I started making up other sentences or different ways to phrase my idea so I could present without stuttering. Then one day it was just gone. Be patient, self-confident, and understand- its just you. It'll go away.

    February 19, 2011 at 18:48 | Report abuse | Reply
    • baby sing

      my smallest grand boy stuttered from the age of 2 until he was 6. he's 8 now and is writing some of his numbers and letters backwards. i wonder if the 2 are correlated? i do know he will outgrow this too, as his mother, who never stuttered, wrote the same letters and numbers backwards for years. nature over nuture.

      February 20, 2011 at 10:47 | Report abuse |
    • Ed

      Dear Dan
      Lucky you, it went away and it does for a lucky group. For others it disappears then reappears with or without or regardless of therapy. For many it hounds them to the day they die. It puts drive-in order speakers, and phones on the list of most despised inventions.You most likely cannot point to anything you did to make it go away. The tricks that put the problem at bay for some, for a while often become as burdensome as the stuttering itself (stamping on the floor, using fillers like "umm, "uh....", hammering a fist, twisting their heads. much like the ball player with a lucky pair of socks. At some point the trick stops working and the horror returns. The more necessary the speech the more the tension and therefore the more likely the difficulty will arise. Be grateful, Dad, and a bit more simpathetic.....YOU've been there!

      February 21, 2011 at 00:34 | Report abuse |
    • Dan

      Ed, Couldn't agree more. I don't think I recall what the turning point was that made stuttering go away but I'm sure it wasn't just a couple of weeks or months. The transition happened over a year's time. However, I still believe having an unyielding self-confidence in yourself is a very, very important factor in improving stuttering over time. In part it was my OCD too. The drive to keep perfecting it. I never really realized it when it went away. Looking back, I would like to thank my brother and my parents for that never ending patience and believing in me. They were the only people I knew that wouldn't look at me with those pitiful eyes when I stuttered.

      Instead, They just ignored it as if it never happened. It is like a door that won't open because the furniture is not placed in a right setup. For all those who do stutter, just find the right setup and you'll see what it means to be able to do whatever your like. Finding your comfort zone and then slowly putting a few 'trouble' variables into it was how I went through it. And then one day- it was gone.

      February 21, 2011 at 10:54 | Report abuse |
  12. Andy

    You're right. You're not ignorant. That would be giving you too much credit. If you call this dialouge you must either be in high school or work for the state government in Wisconsin.

    February 19, 2011 at 18:49 | Report abuse | Reply
  13. deedub

    funny how you could never say these comments to peoples faces but can hide behind a computer and let your insecurities out

    February 19, 2011 at 18:49 | Report abuse | Reply
  14. Ms Fox

    I stuttered around age 13, my worst stressful year, and grind my teeth when sleeping. The stutter got better with aerobics as did the coordination overall. Sleeping with a night guard helped the grinding and speech. I also have to think hard before saying things and say as little as possible. This helps. I would say most of what goes on is genetic after studying genetics and meeting relatives in adulthood for the first time who had the same things going on as myself. Didn't Moses have a stutter?

    February 19, 2011 at 19:01 | Report abuse | Reply
    • turbodog1027

      I stuttered as a kid also and I found that speaking slowly helped me a great deal. Speech Therapist will tell you that is not the thing to do but in the real world, it helped me. Obviously certain situations made my stutter more difficult. Nervousness, new people, new surroundings, being very tired made it worst. I also found that thinking before i spoke helped and i know this sounds strange but talking louder helped as well

      February 20, 2011 at 09:39 | Report abuse |
    • elle

      I don't stutter myself, but I empathize with the struggles I see. I developed a phobia about speaking in front of groups after a few mean boys hooted and mimicked me in junior high during a report I was trying to give. One of the most popular guys I knew was a severe stutterer. We were in a training group together, about 30 people, six weeks long, and this fellow was absolutely determined and courageous about having his say - and he was very smart and intuitive. He blocked on a great many words, and his face would become distorted, but nobody ever laughed - or the rest of us would have thrown that person out! We understood that this fellow was accomplishing something very important to him, namely not letting the stuttering limit his communication or his performance in the group. So we were totally on his side. It must have been very tough for him sometimes, buit he became our #1 or #2 most successful participant. I encourage all people who stutter to claim and defend your right to speak, and if somebody else is a clod about it, ignore them; they don't deserve to hear what you have to say. People can wait a few seconds if need be, no problem. Become a lawyer, a public speaker, anything you want. Don't ever let the idiots of this world shape your goals or choices.

      February 20, 2011 at 13:46 | Report abuse |
  15. Peter

    I find the results very intriguing. I stuttered for as long as I can remember, however it has gotten better as time progressed. I used to have severe blocks on hard consenants about 1-2 times per sentence. It has decreased significantly though since then by relaxing, slowing down, and using some techniques I was taught in speech therapy, I wish the article would delve into more of the motor functions. I was on my high school basketball, soccer, and track team. I have always had decent coordination, and also play musical instruments (in which it is essential to keep a beat.) So although there may be a significant trend I do not believe that motor function all the time.

    February 19, 2011 at 19:05 | Report abuse | Reply
  16. Andy

    This has nothing to do with being able to laugh at one's self. You're trying to get a rise out of people with what can be a debilitating problem for some, with the comfort of total anonymity. And you're right, hateful speech is protected. And you are also right about something else, you are a big ass and pitiful.

    Note to self: Never hire anyone named Dane. That's also my right.

    February 19, 2011 at 19:07 | Report abuse | Reply
  17. anaeliss

    I was teased unmercifully about my stuttering in elementary school. One of my former classmate found me on FaceBook and apologize.It hurt to stutter. My speech teachers were wonderful and public speaking classes in college help a lot. I no longer stutter, also. Reading poetry aloud help stuttering too. I have an above average IQ to all those who think stutters are idiots.

    February 19, 2011 at 19:09 | Report abuse | Reply
  18. Andy

    Congratulations. You have a possible career in politics. Say something ignorant to intentionally create conflict and be hurtful because you can and then spin it as something else.

    I'm still never hiring anyone named Dane.

    Have a good night jagoff.

    February 19, 2011 at 19:18 | Report abuse | Reply
  19. Jane Fraser

    For in depth information on both Dr. Drayna's research and stuttering, visit http://www.StutteringHelp.org.
    Stuttering is the only disability that people laugh at. Let's change that!

    February 19, 2011 at 19:30 | Report abuse | Reply
    • uNdUrSt@nD@Ble

      "Stuttering is the only disability that people laugh at." I beg to differ. People go out of their way to poke fun at all sorts of disabilities, such as tourette's syndrome, PTSD, down syndrome, and even obesity. Now, we can all try to act as though we have never laughed at some ridiculous scene in a movie, or short sketch on the internet which depicts some sort of disability in a humorous way, but most unfortunately, ratings and viewing counters do not lie. People laugh at what they view as different because society has bred into us the idea of "normal", and also that this "normal" is synonymous with "acceptable". The human race is cruel as depicted by this Dane character, but just as he is hiding behind his computer making cruel statements, the vast majority of people hide behind their computers and make righteous statements they also do not back up in the real world. I also serve in the US Army, and on behalf of Dane, I apologize for his insensitivities and ignorance. Obviously his time spent serving has not broadened his horizons. Sometimes, try as you might, you can't fix stupid. Don't blame the Army for his incompetence, blame his upbringing.

      February 20, 2011 at 05:06 | Report abuse |
  20. TW

    News! Message board tough guy "humor" linked to small penis internet tough guys that live in someone's basement!

    February 19, 2011 at 19:32 | Report abuse | Reply
  21. Bud Bultman

    I read about Dr. Drayna's research long ago at http://www.stutteringhelp.org as the Stuttering Foundation is where our family of stutterers found help. Their newsletters keep me on top of the latest research plus their site is full of helpful information. They were there over 60 years ago for my uncles and are still there helping others.

    February 19, 2011 at 19:35 | Report abuse | Reply
  22. Andy

    I dumped Mandy a long time ago.

    February 19, 2011 at 19:35 | Report abuse | Reply
  23. alex

    ta ta ta ta TODAY JUNIOR

    February 19, 2011 at 19:38 | Report abuse | Reply
  24. Andy

    Dane,

    Let's start fresh. You wanted to start a dialogue. Why do you want to start a dialogue on this article?

    February 19, 2011 at 19:42 | Report abuse | Reply
  25. Tyler

    I had never encountered someone with a stutter until i was hired by a temp agency to do a job at a local business. I was paired with someone who had a stutter, and i just kept ignoring it. I know that someone with a stutter isn't stupid, but it feels that way sometimes. Just like when an immigrant cannot speak fluent English, it just gives a certain sense that they are not as smart as you or anyone else who can speak well. In my mind i know that i am wrong to think it, but it just sneaks into my subconscious before i have a chance to squash it. Anyhow, i eventually became friends with him, we like the same types of music, have been to several concerts together and we both like to hike and fish.

    I often found myself feeling sorry for him. Thinking about how i would feel if every time i spoke i would be afraid of being embarrassed, or simply would not talk as much because of it. I don't feel sorry for him anymore, he is just as capable as i am, if not more, and i am happy to call him my friend.

    February 19, 2011 at 19:47 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Jo

      You're an honest man. I like that.

      February 19, 2011 at 19:53 | Report abuse |
    • Meggie24

      Honest post. Glad that you had the maturity to look beyond the superficial, otherwise you would have missed out on having a good friend.

      February 20, 2011 at 11:18 | Report abuse |
    • Melanie

      You are a great and honest person! My son has stuttered since age 2 and he is now in his 20s and has the best friends in the world, I swear. God bless you!!

      February 20, 2011 at 14:14 | Report abuse |
  26. Dane

    I started this because the article had no comments ding dong. Look at all the helpful tips the stuttering community has brought forward to communicate! Jane even posted a website to go too! The article was about to go away for lack of interest. So take that Andy and leave the other Andy and maybe you'll be happy again with Mandy. Go get her buddy!

    February 19, 2011 at 19:50 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Jo

      If this is the way you start conversations, and try to generate interests in subjects, don't leave the house. Just the computer.

      February 19, 2011 at 19:55 | Report abuse |
    • Andy

      And there was no other way to get the dialogue started besides insulting people? These actual helpful comments would have been there anyway sunshine. Now they are just lost in the middle of all of this garbage.

      I also understand that you think you are getting under my skin. Got news for you there too. You're a rank amateur.

      February 19, 2011 at 20:04 | Report abuse |
  27. Jo

    You were the first response. No one had time to start a dialogue. Don't flatter yourself that your insult started anything.

    February 19, 2011 at 19:50 | Report abuse | Reply
  28. Otis

    Finally they are looking at the hugely enormous genome project that has not brought a dime. I hope the NIH will get to studying if eye color is genetic or not.

    February 19, 2011 at 19:58 | Report abuse | Reply
  29. Jo

    Just because people didn't find, or get to the article right away, doesn't make you a hero. You arrogant moron!! Lol.

    February 19, 2011 at 19:58 | Report abuse | Reply
  30. Andy

    Wow. The fact you know how long this article was online is pretty sad. The rest of us apparently actually have a life and don't live in front of the computer.

    February 19, 2011 at 20:08 | Report abuse | Reply
  31. Dane

    They publish the time right there online just like my rhymes against Andy and Andy!

    February 19, 2011 at 20:13 | Report abuse | Reply
  32. Andy

    Are you keeping yourself entertained? I think we get it's all about you and your 4th grade poetry and your need to try to get under peoples skin from a keyboard. Which is probably the closest thing that has come to touching you in a long time.

    What part of the country do you live in?

    February 19, 2011 at 20:13 | Report abuse | Reply
  33. Mega Man X

    Now I see why Sigma revolts against humans....Ugh...

    February 19, 2011 at 20:23 | Report abuse | Reply
  34. MUHAMMED BIN ALI AMOKAWAKNEHONE

    But TW, Most glorious President Obama, savior of our health insurance doesn't stutter, so are you saying...oh, I see what you did there!

    February 19, 2011 at 20:25 | Report abuse | Reply
  35. Andy

    OK. Now that we're ruled out that you live in San Fran I can sleep better knowing the internet cafes there are safe. And the Barbie doll doesn't count.

    February 19, 2011 at 20:27 | Report abuse | Reply
  36. Dane

    Hey, it's Sat night and you picked this fight so don't go blaming me. Along came Andy who forgot his handy verbal assault strategy! Gnite Andy and Jo I have to go and tend to my disabilities. I have them you know from making sure you and your families are free!

    February 19, 2011 at 20:38 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Jaystar

      Along came Dane, who wished to make a name. So he went out trolling to get attention and fame. Lives in his mom's basement, has an underwear stain. He feeds off of the attention, so I know I should refrain. What a pathetic life. Has only himself to blame.

      February 20, 2011 at 03:39 | Report abuse |
  37. becca

    so great to see some research on this! oral reading fluency practice can assist with stuttering.

    February 19, 2011 at 20:42 | Report abuse | Reply
  38. Bonnie

    My son started stuttering at the age of 3 yrs. 10 months. I knew his grandfather stuttered all his life but then his other grandfather, my father, told me that he had stuttered as a child. We went to USC Stuttering therapy clinic which due to his young age recommended no direct therapy but use a form of behavior modification which involved responding to fluent speech and basically ignoring the stuttering. It took many years to slowly outgrow it but as an adult of about 40 years old, my son is about 98% fluent. I think he is very lucky! I definitely believe the genetic theory is absolutely right. Now I hope that none of my four young grandchildren develop this.

    February 19, 2011 at 21:21 | Report abuse | Reply
  39. mike

    St st st stuttering stanley

    February 19, 2011 at 21:34 | Report abuse | Reply
  40. redbull

    Apparently people with disabilities have no problem fighting with complete strangers online. Choose your Battles!!! Don't you have more important things that need to be dealt with?

    February 19, 2011 at 21:42 | Report abuse | Reply
  41. melissa

    Karma sucks Dane...I just came upon this article and have a sense that Dane is one of those who tease others to make his self feel better. Awe, that must be horrible. He probably bags groceries and works out 10 times a day like "others" I know with his condition...let me tell you, his is much worse than any stutterer will ever have..ignorance. Oh, and I don't stutter, but my husband does and he is a Major in the U.S Army. What do you do DDDDDDDDane? lmao

    February 19, 2011 at 21:44 | Report abuse | Reply
  42. Teddy

    You have no room to talk redbull. you killed a 16 yr old girl today.

    February 19, 2011 at 21:47 | Report abuse | Reply
  43. Candy

    My husband stuttered as a young boy. He now speaks 3 languages, but can still stutter if he's very upset. I realize now that I have had 3 past boyfriends who also used to stutter. The reason I was attracted to them as grown men is that they slowed down and enunciated well when they speak. That means they pause long enough to actually listen to your part of the conversation, a very attractive quality. It's not obvious when you meet them now. A good listener is a good mate.

    February 19, 2011 at 22:24 | Report abuse | Reply
  44. Barbara

    My son stuttered from 2 1/2 to age 5 1/2 (following a traumatic event). I cried nearly every night and we tried everything we could think of to help him using professional advice. Finally I came across the Lidcombe Program. It's a home-based parent run program. Not having a lidcombe center nearby, I ordered the textbook from amazon and read it through twice to teach myself how to do it.

    We were desperate to "cure" him of stuttering before he started kindergarten which was 5 months away. I used the program exactly as outlined (even charting daily progress) and within 6 weeks, he went from 80% "bumpy speech" to around 15%. Within 4 months, he was basically a fluid speaker. It was enjoyable. We spent 10 minutes in "talking time" each day and he was rewarded with smarties candies for smooth speech. Basically operant conditioning. I didn't tell him how to be smooth, I just rewarded him when he was. May sound extreme, but as I said, we were desperate and it worked.

    My father has stuttered and blocked his whole life and watching him struggle made me excruciatingly aware of what stuttering means to a person. The book is called The Lidcombe Program and it's for clinicians, but worth a try in case your child is stuttering due to trauma, and not physical reasons.

    February 19, 2011 at 22:28 | Report abuse | Reply
  45. slp

    Karma can be a drag, I hope you soon find out.

    February 19, 2011 at 22:43 | Report abuse | Reply
  46. slp

    I would say you must be like 12 years old, but that's an insult to most 12 year olds I know.

    February 19, 2011 at 22:44 | Report abuse | Reply
  47. izimbra

    wow,what was supposed to be a discussion about a potentionally socially debilitating disorder has turned into a feud.what'a a "manly"?

    February 19, 2011 at 22:54 | Report abuse | Reply
  48. Peter Melzer

    None of the findings cited in this report help understand the causes of stuttering. The genetic analyses mentioned are purely associational and do not inform us in which way the implicated genes are involved in stuttering. The functional imaging studies neither tell us whether the observed cerebral activation is cause or effect, nor do they tell us anything about the underlying nerve cell mechanisms (read more here: brainmindinst.blogspot.com/2009/03/fmri-mental-processing.html).

    We are at the beginning.

    February 19, 2011 at 23:32 | Report abuse | Reply
    • alph

      You are correct on all points, Peter: excellent observations. As is often the case, some researchers and journalists are too quick to draw conclusions, leaving the general public misinformed. Having a long career in speech-language pathology myself, I can, however, HIGHLY recommend the "Stuttering Foundation Of America" publications and the advice of so many commentors: practice, practice, practice (with good guidance). I'm also somewhat surprised that no resource references were given to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Parents and people who stutter should check out this professional association's website.

      February 20, 2011 at 06:00 | Report abuse |
  49. sam ramirez

    I have sturred ever since I remember. I hated it I was afried of talking to girls cause how bad it was. But with the help of speech teacher. I have gotten. Better. But when I get stressed or have issuses it happens more. What. Sucks is my lil boy is starting to do the same thing I try to help him to slow down and to top it off my neice stutters really bad I feel bad for her. But I now they will get better

    February 20, 2011 at 00:00 | Report abuse | Reply
  50. Rachel

    I am so sorry Dane. There is no question you get pumped up by the recognition. Then a self-loathing sets in when you realise you're enjoying it. Don't behave foolishly, unless you enjoy playing the fool and have a desire to slowly destroy yourself. I hope this isn't the case – that would be very sad.

    February 20, 2011 at 00:08 | Report abuse | Reply
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