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August 11th, 2010
03:05 PM ET

Menstrual cramps may modify the brain

Many women dread "that time of the month" because it comes with sharp pains and even nausea or dizziness. Sometimes, you just want to stay in bed.

But here's a surprise: according to new research, cramps during your period may actually alter the structure of your brain.

A study in the September issue of the journal PAIN looked at 32 patients who suffer menstrual cramps and 32 who do not, matched to the other participants by age and menstrual cycle.  Researchers did MRI scans of participants when they were not experiencing pain.

The study authors found significant changes in the volume of the brain's gray matter among women who usually have period cramps. They found substantial decreases in brain regions that play a role in pain transmission and higher level sensory processing. There were increases in gray matter volume in brain regions that deal with pain modulation and regulating endocrine function.

The consequences of these changes have not been established, says lead author Dr. Jen-Chuen Hsieh, of the Institute of Brain Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan. Further study must be done in order to figure out whether these changes affect brain function and if they are reversible.

Stay tuned for a CNN.com article later this week on women and chronic pain.


soundoff (175 Responses)
  1. Vetman

    So that explains why most women are a-holes. I always knew that anything that loses a quart of blood a month couldn't be all there.

    August 12, 2010 at 07:47 | Report abuse | Reply
    • wzrd1

      So, what is YOUR excuse?

      August 12, 2010 at 07:57 | Report abuse |
    • 1Houligan

      Such a nice guy you are. Understanding, sympathetic. My guess is that women just aren't into you. Why don't you just have a beer, burp and keep your mouth shut.

      August 12, 2010 at 08:14 | Report abuse |
    • thatswutsup

      yeah. and if we traded places for a month, you'd go crying to your room in your mommy's basement.

      August 12, 2010 at 08:34 | Report abuse |
  2. Free from hell

    After getting my period at age 11 and suffering with PMS, PCOS, and Endometriosis for 21 years or so I finally had my ovary removed, had an endometrial ablation and a uterine ablation and I feel like a new woman. Sex isn't painful, I don't have a period, PMS is minimal and I don't suffer from migraines anymore. I have one child who's a blessing and I breastfed him for 29 months. I'm content, HAPPY and not in pain.

    August 12, 2010 at 08:03 | Report abuse | Reply
    • thatswutsup

      sounds like a long painful road. so glad you are doing better! thank goodness you got a blessing out of your sacrifice 🙂

      August 12, 2010 at 08:36 | Report abuse |
  3. Brain Surgeon

    What the study shows is that chronic but intermittent pain will have measurable changes in patient's brain anatomy that persists after the cramps are gone, and goes on to identify where those changes occur. This was not a project to cure cramps, but to try to understand them and their impact on the brain. This study is similar to and supports a similar study that showed chronic changes in the brains of people with long-standing back pain.

    This is only a first step into understanding how the brain reacts to these painful problems, and is necessary prior to developing some type of treatment for those suffering with these types of problems. Sorry, it's not going to make the cramps go away, but at least someone is looking into the problem, spreading their findings, and trying to move the science forward. Plus, there isn't enough time in the world for every researcher to work on every problem known to man. I still get grief from my mother who wants to know when I'll discover the cure for migraines. I keep telling her I don't work on migraines, I'm doing research on spinal cord injury repair and operating on patient with severe spinal problems, but that isn't good enough for her. 😦

    August 12, 2010 at 08:14 | Report abuse | Reply
  4. Barbara

    In the 50's my doctor told me the cramps were "all in my head". I went to bed for a day every month. The cramps were awful.
    After my first baby they stopped. (Mom predicted this.) The labors were quick and easy. Obviously the same chemical creating the cramps advanced labor.

    August 12, 2010 at 08:21 | Report abuse | Reply
    • thatswutsup

      i had crippling cramps as a teen too, after i had my baby, mine were better too, except my labor was very long and painful....it reallly just must be different for everyone..

      August 12, 2010 at 08:32 | Report abuse |
  5. Laura

    Yeah, my husband could have saved them a lot of time and energy. He'll tell you in a heartbeat that cramps alter brain structure. Anytime I do something completely over the top he'll check the calendar first and then say "Don't try that sh*t next week". LOL!!

    August 12, 2010 at 08:23 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Debra McHugh

      Are you referring to the pain of cramping or the hormones which alter mood? The study, which I think is a load, is about the pain itself causing brain changes. They know hormones affect everyone mentally.

      August 12, 2010 at 08:47 | Report abuse |
  6. thatswutsup

    when i'm on the pill...no cramps or period, but i did gain about 15 lbs and had to buy all new clothes....ahh the trade offs...love bein a woman.

    August 12, 2010 at 08:30 | Report abuse | Reply
  7. Debra McHugh

    I am not fully understanding this. Could it pain in general or pain associated with cramping only? Why about cramping of the stomach muscles which happens in both men and women. I want to see more scientific data on this before I am ready to claim that menstruation alters a women's brain. Why not test men in pain and their brain fluctuations? Why was this study even funded? What is the purpose here?

    August 12, 2010 at 08:45 | Report abuse | Reply
  8. salayem

    It must be horrible to be a woman.

    August 12, 2010 at 08:47 | Report abuse | Reply
  9. babaloo13bonzai

    Are we sure this isn't just another way of men saying hormones make women mentally unstable and retarded? Now having periods gives us brain damage??? That's just a step above saying that women cause milk to sour and crops to die when they are menstruating! How long will it be until women stop putting up with this kind of crap?!?

    August 12, 2010 at 08:48 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Debra McHugh

      I feel the same way. The test was soooo limited to be of any value and I am not really sure what that value(read:motivation) is.

      August 12, 2010 at 08:54 | Report abuse |
    • Heather Jeane

      They aren't saying that we have brain damage. They are saying altered and not all women. You aren't one of them, and that's fine, but for those of us who are unable to have a normal life because of a condition that's being ignored by the medical community... even women doctors who are so afraid of being stigmatized that they refuse to acknowledge what those of us who are not as fortunate as them to have bearable cycles... this is important. It's FINALLY an admission that something really is wrong with some of us and it needs to be addressed.

      August 12, 2010 at 08:57 | Report abuse |
  10. Tee

    the headline got my attention, since last month I too experienced at 37 my WORST period ever! Only to have my female Dr. say"well you know some months are worse than others" as if I was 12 and having no experience in what my normal cramp filled cycle is like! Went home with a script for pain meds and no explanation about the severe pain,heavy clots,or extreme exhaustion.

    August 12, 2010 at 08:49 | Report abuse | Reply
  11. Heather Jeane

    This does not surprise me one bit. I'm relieved to see I'm not the only one. My cycle has limited my life so that I'm not able to hold down a job or even drive on the days when I am at the worst. I'm infuriated that my gyno thinks I'm just being a drama queen and told me to take motrin. The thing is that I am not a wimp by any means. My pain threshold is much higher than average. I have bruises all over and can not identify where most came from because there was little or no pain when I was injured. I'm in my mid 30's, have had two pregnancies and am seriously debating a hysterectomy so that I can just have a normal life going forward.

    August 12, 2010 at 08:52 | Report abuse | Reply
    • been there, done that

      Heather Jeane, I feel for you. Used to have the same problems, including cystic breasts that were so tender most of the month that riding in a car was miserable due to any "bumping". Depo-provera changed my life. Many women these days are estrogen-dominant. Our ancestors had maybe 50 periods in a lifetime. Women now have 400-500. Most of us need more exposure to progesterone. I used to get the Depo shots once every three months. Fabulous-no more breast pain, no periods and no agonzing, rolling on the floor cramps. The one thing I didn't like was the weight gain. The solution for me was the Depo provera pill, which I buy in England. I take it twice a week–no periods, no breast pain, no cramps, and no weight gain. So many women are suffering needlessly, when it is easily solved. A nurse is the one who helped me, as she had gone through the same thing. Just spreading the word.
      Best wishes.

      August 12, 2010 at 10:53 | Report abuse |
    • Been there

      Having a total hysterectomy and oopherectomy was the best thing I EVER did for myself. The second best thing was having a doctor do it rather than doing it myself as I was often tempted.

      August 12, 2010 at 19:50 | Report abuse |
  12. wiredog

    Wow, all that brain power and they are figuring this out? I need to find me a grant, I want to study the long term effects of doing nothing!

    August 12, 2010 at 08:58 | Report abuse | Reply
  13. Rude Dude

    Never trust something that bleeds for 5 days and doesn't die

    August 12, 2010 at 09:03 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Men don't get it

      It's only a few ounces of blood and a small amount of tissue – the rest is cervical mucus. It's not ALL blood – it's a renewing.

      August 12, 2010 at 09:41 | Report abuse |
    • Mabel

      Dude lol!

      August 12, 2010 at 10:19 | Report abuse |
  14. Amanda

    Maybe the period cramp brain modification correlates to multi-tasking and that's why men can't do it? 😉

    August 12, 2010 at 09:14 | Report abuse | Reply
  15. Tiffini S

    WRONG WRONG WRONG! I read this study, and it's not MENSTRUAL CRAMPS that alter the brain – it's PAIN and ANXIETY. So in other words, if MEN knew that every 28 days or so they would be subjected to pain and bloating and generally feeling unwell, they would react the exact same way.

    Folks – Until BOTH sexes realize that that it's the circumstances that women go through which make us the way we are, and not our biological make-up, then widespread misogyny will never even begin to reverse itself.

    Of course men and women are different, and biology counts for a lot. But the brain overrides the body in thousands of daily actions and interactions. And the main thing that shapes your brain are your experiences. Men use the 'woman' card too often to explain too many things that they don't agree with. When in fact it's only our particular set of experiences that make us the way we are, and if men had to undergo anything near it, they would react the same exact way.

    The person who wrote this article should formally apologize for not even coming close to reading the study, then winging this totally irresponsible headline out there to grab readers.

    August 12, 2010 at 09:15 | Report abuse | Reply
  16. Dr Bill Toth

    Maybe the brain changes comes first.???
    Live With Intention,
    DrBillToth.com/blog

    August 12, 2010 at 09:15 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Cheng-Hao Tu

      Ya, it is possible, but we don't have any data to conclude the consequence yet. We need more data and we are working on it.

      August 12, 2010 at 11:39 | Report abuse |
  17. AM

    Rude Dude You are about to start a whole different conversation on this post. You might not want to go there. Further more what was the point of them posting this article if they didn't have a conclusion I had to agree with you Susan point less!

    August 12, 2010 at 09:24 | Report abuse | Reply
  18. Christine

    Could have been an interesting article, but whoever wrote it needs to learn to write.

    August 12, 2010 at 09:25 | Report abuse | Reply
  19. Teri

    LOL @ Mary's comment, thanks for the morning laugh.

    August 12, 2010 at 09:28 | Report abuse | Reply
  20. Susan

    Tiffini – Pointing out the vast anatomical and hormonal differences between men and women is not misogyny. i expect if a man knew he'd have a week out of each month that would be filled with pain and discomfort he'd dread it...and it might even alter the brain... but i bet his alteration would still look different than what goes on with a woman's brain during the surge of hormones that brings the menstrual pain.

    August 12, 2010 at 09:31 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Tiffini S

      I guess what I was trying to convey is how men blame our periods for things. It's not the period, it's the pain and hormones. And men have pain and hormones, too. So it's a human thing, not male or female. Even the study acknowledges that the long-term, cyclic pain of menstruation is what they were dealing with. The difference is, if this study had been done with men and arthritis pain (long-term, cyclic) then it would be a whole different ball game. No off handed jokes from men, no women pleading their cases of people not believing them on how painful it is. If we're dealing with pain, then why does it matter if it's male or female pain. Pain affects the brain, period. Even if it's because of a period.

      August 12, 2010 at 10:09 | Report abuse |
  21. Ertan Zanagar

    I figured out this scientific fact when I was about 8 years old. My mom threw a flower pot at me during one her her mood swings.

    August 12, 2010 at 09:32 | Report abuse | Reply
  22. Jessica

    My partner has been having accupuncture for her Multiple Sclerosis – and right before her menstrual cycle she'll get needles put in a certain spot and it totally reduces the pain when she has her period. That said – from eastern medicines perspective, any sort of pain associated with a cycle is considered bad – meaning something is wrong with the way your body is functioning. Western medicine tells women "dont worry, lots of women have abnormal periods, irregular cycles, lots of pain – it's all normal"...but it's not. These are signs that something is wrong, it's not one single thing – but a combination of factors – from exercise to diet, to other health problems affecting the liver, ect. I get frustrated with Western Medicines approach to address the symptoms, not the underlying problem. But then again, how would they make their money if they fixed the problem right off the bat – rather than having you come back time and time again because those pesky symptoms just wont go away?

    August 12, 2010 at 09:36 | Report abuse | Reply
    • Poodle

      Jessica,
      I have to applaud your point! You are so right! This country is run by large drug companies that make their money by keeping people sick and on prescriptions. We weren't made to live off drugs, yet America makes it seem so normal. These huge companies have too much power and too much money, they influence the laws and regulations to their own benefit, and average Joe and Jane are the ones that get hurt in the end. Since many women are reading this article, I would like to use a case in point – the lovely Johnson & Johnson created a deadly patch that killed many young women (around 18 years old!) by causing blood clots in their lungs and such. They also falsified trials of the patch to show that it was safer than it actually was. Did you see this story on the news? Of course you did not, Johnson & Johnson paid the families off to cover up the story. Johnson & Johnson, a family company. My behind!
      Personally, I once was on the depo-provera shot. Then I developed a more uncommon and large ovarian cyst, and my gyn took me off the shot because she informed me it causes bone-density loss. I suspect it caused my rare type of cyst, but who am I to stand up to a large corporation with just a hunch on my side and money, power, lawyers, and government officials they pay off or "donate" to on their side?

      August 13, 2010 at 18:59 | Report abuse |
  23. Melissa

    Do what I did and just use the birth control pills that allow you to quit having a period. We aren't made to have this many periods anyway. We're made to be pregnant or breast feeding for the majority of our adult lives but since that isn't what we do anymore we end up suffering needlessly through period after period. I haven't had one in years, changed my life.

    August 12, 2010 at 09:51 | Report abuse | Reply
  24. Jorge

    Yup, just like the change in brain waves Bruce Banner goes through before he changes; over the years I've developed a sixth sense that detects these changes, and when I do, I leave a box of chocolates on my wife's dresser (as a form of protection money) and camp out at the other end of the house...

    August 12, 2010 at 09:58 | Report abuse | Reply
  25. Karen

    It's a pretty giant leap to make to say that having cramps changes brain structure based on this one variable. Either this study was extremely flawed, or the writer of this article left out a lot of information. Women who have cramps can also have other problems such as migraine, hormonal imbalances, endometriosis, cysts, and so on. How do they know it is not something else, or a combination of other factors?

    August 12, 2010 at 10:12 | Report abuse | Reply
  26. Geo

    Being a guy – I'm not so sure about the brain being altered by menstrual cramps – but it sure plays hell with a love life.

    August 12, 2010 at 10:23 | Report abuse | Reply
  27. WellDuh

    To be honest, the sample size was far too limited to be of any use. The study was published WAT too early. And I do feel a sense of gender bias here. I wonder if they should do a study on men's brain capacity after they "tend to themselves."

    August 12, 2010 at 10:52 | Report abuse | Reply
  28. Brenda

    Awww. Give the writer a break, probably some young guy assigned to a topic he had to call every female relative for info. In the meantime.....between hissing and growling, I would like to agree that the best thing I can do for the world is to crawl into a cave, yes with lots of quality chocolate and chinese food, until its all over.

    August 12, 2010 at 13:18 | Report abuse | Reply
  29. Queen Lattice

    To all you women who are touting the pill as a miracle medicine: I, too, had the horrible bleeding and cramps & dealt with it for yearsssss... And I, too, was given The Pill to fix my monthly pain. No period for 4 months, it was great! It fixed every problem I had – no more cramps, no more acne, no headache, backache, and my moods were even-keeled! Yes, it was truly a miracle medicine!! It was great!! UNTIL I COULDN'T BREATHE! – Pulmonary embolism people! – That's blood clots in the lungs for you who don't know. 75% of people who find out they have pulmonary embolism find out when they're getting an AUTOPSY! The Pill affects different women differently! – so please, if you are taking the pill as a means of combating your monthly torture, PLEASE be sure to see your doctor immediately if you are having any trouble breathing, or get out of breath easily, or have unforeseen chest pains! You just might be saving your own life!

    Signed,
    "Lucky to be Alive" Queen Lattice

    August 12, 2010 at 16:14 | Report abuse | Reply
  30. Mike

    I am surprised how a basic neuroscience study like this can create so much misunderstanding and misdirected frustration. Part of it is most likely due to the poor quality of the news article.

    It seems not many people can understand the significance of this kind of research. As the comments to the news article shows: one half thinks the study is a waste of money stating the obvious and the other half thinks little is being done to help women with menstrual pain. This clearly shows why research on menstrual pain is an up-hill battle. To the first group of people the following should be made clear:
    – Having a brain does not make you a brain surgeon.
    – Having menstrual pain does not mean you are an expert on the biology of menstrual pain
    – Science is not based on single person’s subjective 40-years of experience (although it may very well be helpful). Statistics is needed.
    – How many of you can say which neural subsystems were changed and how they were changed? None?
    To the second group of people, I think you should try to appreciate that somebody out there are trying to look into it (but far too few). Although menstrual pain is widespread, research on menstrual pain is scarce, is considered scientifically low-impact because it is not really considered chronic pain, and most women don’t die from it. I know, it's ridiculous. The suffering is still there. So, why is this study important?
    – Because it shows that the brain anatomy/ structure (not the activity) has changed even when the YOUNG women are in their pain-free state (no pain, no anxiety, no mood changes) of their menstrual cycle.
    – These changes are similar but not exactly the same as for what is considered "real" chronic pain. This provides neurobiological evidence for the importance of menstrual pain as chronic pain. Of cause behaviorally it's obvious – to some).
    – Some of these changes show the brain tries to compensate for the pain-input. Other changes suggest that what is usually a protecting pain-inhibiting mechanism in the brain does not work as well and can result in even more pain as the years pass. This might not be true for all, of cause, as pain coping is important too. Does this show that women with menstrual pain have brain damage? No, only if you're trying to manipulate people around you.
    – Menstrual pain can, apart from in its own right, also be used to study pain systematically which is difficult in other types of SPONTANEOUS chronic pain.

    August 13, 2010 at 06:30 | Report abuse | Reply
  31. Mary Jo

    Ladies, try cutting down on the caffine. I, too, had terrible cramps to the point where I would nearly pass out. I cannot tell you how much work I missed during those years. The doctor would prescribe Naproxin, but it didn't really help much. I finally read somewhere that eliminating CAFFINE might help. I used to drink tea a couple times per day. I went cold turkey and lo and behold it worked! I now only drink decaffinated tea. I still get occasional cramps, but they are very mild. Give it a try, you have nothing to lose but misery.

    August 13, 2010 at 11:06 | Report abuse | Reply
  32. angryStudent

    at least link me to the actual science article you stole data from. You have to include citations in this you jerks.

    August 13, 2010 at 11:55 | Report abuse | Reply
  33. Jennifer

    No one mentioned the Mirena IUD. It stops your period too and all the misery that goes with it. WONDERFUL!

    August 13, 2010 at 14:58 | Report abuse | Reply
  34. Poodle

    Every one who stated this article is poorly worded actually has a poor understanding of the article. The article clearly states the difference found is between women who have menstrual cramps and women who do not have menstrual cramps. It also clearly states the women who do have menstrual cramps were tested during the times they were not in pain – suggesting changes in the brain that last even after the menstrual cramps are over with. Obviously this article is just the very beginning of the study, as they have not actually been able to find a causation – only a correlation. And if you are confused, please look those two words up and understand they have very different meanings. My only question in response to this article is to ask why would women want to "reverse" these brain changes if it is possible that these brain changes are only to better adapt to the pain. Would not reversing the changes cause us to become more susceptible to our monthly pain? After years of building a tolerance, who would want to go back to day one? And I am sure that this is all in preparation for nature's ultimate goal for our bodies and for our menstrual cycle – procreation.

    August 13, 2010 at 18:41 | Report abuse | Reply
  35. Poodle

    Also something the medical community should look into is that I found that taking IBUPROFEN literally stops my cramps, whereas if I took any other pain medicine during my period, I would need to continue taking it for several days until my cramps let up on their own. When I take Ibuprofen the first day of my period, there is a very noticeable difference in the severity of my cramps AS WELL AS the heaviness of my flow! On the second day, my period does not go into very heavy flow, and my cramps practically go away. Otherwise, if I do not take Ibuprofen, or if I take any other pain medicine, my cramps are so intense that I get nauseated, dizzy, lightheaded, and they force anything out of my intestines if you know what I mean, as well as I am unable to hold my bladder at all or else I will be in more pain. Also, my flow goes into 'super' tampon mode, whereas with Ibuprofen taken at the first sign of cramps and again in four/five hours, my flow stays at 'regular'.
    This can not be completely coincidental – what does Ibuprofen alter that it practically stops or slows down my period? And thank goodness for it whatever it is! =)))

    August 13, 2010 at 19:15 | Report abuse | Reply
  36. Mike

    There are different causes to menstrual pain. The mentioned study was concerned with primary dysmenorrhea. That means menstrual pain without structural changes in the uterus. For this type, it is the menstrual cramps (muscle contractions) that lead to pain possible my constricting the blood vessels. Prostaglandins are the main mediators of this process and aspirin and ibuprofen are prostaglandin inhibitors. However, to be most effective the drugs should be taken BEFORE the muscle cramps begin as muscle cramps already indicate that prostaglandin has been released. That's why ibuprofen works for some people.

    August 13, 2010 at 21:34 | Report abuse | Reply
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  40. bhealthy4life11

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    November 5, 2011 at 08:51 | Report abuse | Reply
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    December 19, 2011 at 20:02 | Report abuse | Reply
  42. Menstrual Cramps

    I deal menstrual cramps by hot compressing my belly. I also found nice article how to deal menstrual cramps in http://www.howtogetridofperiodcramps.com/menstrual-cramps.

    June 3, 2012 at 07:06 | Report abuse | Reply
  43. Ecrin

    It happened to me! I felt smtypoms a week after conception and took a test at three weeks and it was positive. This is after 5 years of trying on just Metformin. I am 15 weeks today..

    August 1, 2012 at 22:40 | Report abuse | Reply
  44. Sarah

    I am over 40 years old and have been getting painful periods since I was 13. I experience severe pain in my lower abdomen and lower back, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea and have almost fainted a few times. Last year, I had to visit the emergency room 3 times. I've tried Premenstrual Tension from BrainSync Technology and I saw that if I listen to this for about 3-4 days before the strike I am more present more able to handle myself… and this helped immensely. Give it a try http://www.brainsynctechnology.com/shop/premenstrual-tension/ This has helped a lot.

    March 11, 2013 at 05:21 | Report abuse | Reply
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Get a behind-the-scenes look at the latest stories from CNN Chief Medical Correspondent, Dr. Sanjay Gupta, Senior Medical Correspondent Elizabeth Cohen and the CNN Medical Unit producers. They'll share news and views on health and medical trends - info that will help you take better care of yourself and the people you love.